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Table 1 Explanatory Variables, descriptions and sources

From: Socioeconomic, demographic and healthcare determinants of the COVID-19 pandemic: an ecological study of Spain

Independent variables Definition Source
Log public health expenditure Logarithm of average public health expenditure over the last 10 years (2009–2018) Spanish Health Ministry
Doctors Number of active registered doctors per 100,000 inhabitants INE, 2018
Hospital beds Number of hospital beds (public and private) per 100,000 inhabitants Eurostat, 2017
Nursing homes beds Number of places in nursing homes per 100 inhabitants over 64 years of age Spanish Ministry of Economics, 2019
Proportion of care homes over 100 beds Proportion of care homes places in care homes with more than 100 places over the total Spanish Ministry of Economics, 2019
Log GDP per capita Logarithm of GDP per capita INE, 2019
Aeroplane passengers Total number of air passenger traffic in each of the regions, in thousands AENA, February 2020
Proportion of elderly people Proportion of the population aged 65 or above, over the total. INE, 2019
Proportion of urban people Proportion of population living in municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants INE, 2019
Gini index Income inequality within each region INE / EUROSTAT, 2017
Island region Dummy variable indicating whether each of the regions is an island or not  
PM2.5 concentration Population-weighted average of the annual average concentration of PM2.5 (μg/m3) INE, 2018
  1. AENA Spanish National Aeronautics and Air-Traffic Administration, GDP Gross Domestic Product, INE Spanish National Institute of Statistics, PM2.5 Particulate Matter below 2.5 μm