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Table 2 Descriptive statistics on paid work (or self-employment), quality of life, disability, pain and psychological outcome measures by categories for length of hospital stay

From: Impacts of injury severity on long-term outcomes following motor vehicle crashes

  Pre-Injury Baseline post-injury 6 months 12 months
Mean (SD) or N (%) Mean (SD) or N (%) Mean (SD) or N (%) Mean (SD) or N (%)
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Paid work
 LOS < = 1 day 1011 (77.5)   Incomplete 581 (76.8)
 LOS 2–6 days 378 (74.6)   Incomplete 234 (71.1)
 LOS ≥ 7 days 143 (69.1)   Incomplete 71 (64.0)
p value 0.02    0.006
Among those in paid work pre-injury
 LOS < = 1 day    665 (90.6) 536 (91.3)
 LOS 2–6 days    245 (88.1) 216 (87.5)
 LOS ≥ 7 days    70 (70.7) 67 (81.7)
p value    < 0.0001 0.015
Full score (1) achieved on the total EQ-5D-3L summary score
 LOS < = 1 day 878 (67.4) 73 (5.6) 416 (43.4) 387 (51.1)
 LOS 2–6 days 357 (70.7) 4 (0.8) 106 (27.6) 133 (40.6)
 LOS ≥ 7 days 143 (69.1) 0 (0) 19 (13.7) 17 (14.9)
p value 0.3 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Any pain
 LOS < = 1 day Not available 1087 (83.4) 564 (60.3) 388 (51.2)
 LOS 2–6 days Not available 468 (92.3) 281 (74.1) 201 (61.1)
 LOS ≥ 7 days Not available 199 (96.1) 126 (90.0) 97 (85.1)
p value   < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
EQ-5D-3L summary score
 LOS < = 1 day 0.93 (0.14) 0.49 (0.35) 0.81 (0.25) 0.85 (0.23)
 LOS 2–6 days 0.93 (0.14) 0.29 (0.36) 0.74 (0.27) 0.78 (0.27)
 LOS ≥ 7 days 0.92 (0.14) 0.09 (0.37) 0.61 (0.30) 0.67 (0.26)
p value 0.7 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
SF12-PCS
 LOS < = 1 day Not available 38.0 (11.2) 48.6 (9.8) 49.9 (9.3)
 LOS 2–6 days Not available 29.3 (9.2) 44.9 (10.7) 47.0 (11.0)
 LOS ≥ 7 days Not available 25.1 (8.4) 37.8 (11.4) 39.6 (11.5)
p value   < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
SF12-MCS
 LOS < = 1 day Not available 49.2 (12.0) 51.9 (10.5) 52.9 (9.4)
 LOS 2–6 days Not available 48.9 (11.7) 52.4 (10.5) 52.1 (10.9)
 LOS ≥ 7 days Not available 46.7 (12.1) 48.9 (13.1) 50.2 (11.4)
p value   0.02 0.003 0.02
WHODAS
 LOS < = 1 day Not available Not available 9.9 (16.3) 8.3 (15.9)
 LOS 2–6 days Not available Not available 13.5 (18.7) 12.0 (18.3)
 LOS ≥ 7 days Not available Not available 23.7 (22.7) 23.0 (22.1)
p value    < 0.0001 < 0.0001
IES-R total
 LOS ≤ 1 day Not available 3.53 (3.12) 2.18 (2.75) 1.66 (2.54)
 LOS 2–6 days Not available 3.75 (3.10) 2.49 (2.98) 2.17 (2.79)
 LOS ≥ 7 days Not available 4.03 (3.16) 3.57 (3.27) 3.59 (3.33)
p value   0.06 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
DASS-21 total
 LOS ≤1 day Not available 12.3 (15.1) 9.6 (14.3) 7.3 (12.7)
 LOS 2–6 days Not available 13.1 (15.1) 10.1 (14.4) 8.7 (13.0)
 LOS ≥ 7 days Not available 14.7 (15.4) 15.1 (16.8) 14.7 (16.1)
p value   0.09 0.0002 < 0.0001
Perceived change / progress (−5 to + 5)
 LOS ≤ 1 day    3.18 (2.33) 3.58 (2.06)
 LOS 2–6 days    2.64 (2.30) 3.14 (2.17)
 LOS ≥ 7 days    1.96 (2.49) 2.22 (2.33)
p value    < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Numeric pain scale among those reporting any pain at each interviewa
 LOS ≤ 1 day   4.6 (2.3) 3.5 (2.3) 3.3 (2.2)
 LOS 2–6 days   5.2 (2.2) 3.7 (2.4) 3.6 (2.3)
 LOS ≥ 7 days   5.7 (2.2) 4.0 (2.2) 4.1 (2.2)
p value   < 0.0001 0.06 0.003
Pain catastrophizing scale among those reporting any pain at each interviewa
 LOS ≤ 1 day   15.4 (13.6) 14.4 (13.9) 13.0 (13.6)
 LOS 2–6 days   16.0 (14.1) 13.9 (14.6) 13.2 (13.8)
 LOS ≥ 7 days   19.0 (14.0) 15.1 (13.7) 16.2 (15.3)
p value   0.003 0.7 0.12
OMPSQ among those reporting current pain at each interview
 LOS < = 1 day   39.6 (17.8) 36.0 (20.6) 34.1 (21.0)
 LOS 2–6 days   45.4 (16.7) 38.5 (20.2) 38.2 (20.5)
 LOS ≥ 7 days   51.8 (15.7) 46.0 (21.2) 46.4 (20.9)
p value   < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
  1. a26 individuals who did not report pain at baseline missed out on the questions about pain and pain catastrophizing at their 6 month follow up interview