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Table 1 Baseline demographic, health, crash and injury-related characteristics by length of hospital stay

From: Impacts of injury severity on long-term outcomes following motor vehicle crashes

   Length of hospital stay  
<=1 day (n = 1304) 2–6 days (n = 507) 7 days or more (n = 207)  
Mean (SD) or
n (%)
Mean (SD) or
n (%)
Mean (SD) or
n (%)
P value
Self-reported days in hospital (mean, SD) 0.24 (0.43) 3.5 (1.3) 12.9 (6.6) NA
Age (mean, SD) 39.7 (15.6) 43.1 (17.3) 45.5 (18.2) < 0.0001
Male gender 784 (60.1) 372 (73.4) 149 (72.0) < 0.0001
Country of birth     0.008
 Australia 899 (68.9) 374 (73.8) 161 (77.8)  
 New Zealand 35 (2.7) 16 (3.2) 7 (3.4)  
 United Kingdom 79 (6.1) 38 (7.5) 10 (4.8)  
 Other 291 (22.3) 79 (15.6) 29 (14.0)  
English as primary language 1171 (89.8) 478 (94.3) 188 (90.8) 0.01
Marital status     0.2
 Divorced, widowed or separated 127 (9.8) 50 (9.9) 27 (13.0)  
 Married or de facto 640 (49.1) 269 (53.2) 104 (50.2)  
 Never married 536 (41.1) 187 (37.0) 76 (36.7)  
Recruitment source     < 0.0001
 RNSH or RPAH 778 (59.7) 227 (44.8) 67 (32.4)  
 Orange, Dubbo or Bathurst hospital 103 (7.9) 132 (26.0) 59 (28.5)  
 Other hospital 338 (25.9) 136 (26.8) 74 (35.8)  
 Non-hospital 85 (6.5) 12 (2.4) 7 (3.4)  
Educational level     < 0.0001
 Primary or pre-primary 70 (5.4) 38 (7.5) 18 (8.7)  
 Secondary 375 (28.8) 167 (32.9) 72 (34.8)  
 Technical or other further education 302 (23.2) 121 (23.9) 65 (31.4)  
 Tertiary or university 556 (42.7) 181 (35.7) 52 (25.1)  
Pre-injury paid work or self-employment 1011 (77.5) 378 (74.6) 143 (69.1) 0.02
Pre-injury income (Aust dollars)     0.5
 $0–20,799 53 (5.5) 17 (4.8) 10 (7.4)  
 $20,800–41,599 151 (15.7) 52 (14.7) 28 (20.7)  
 $41,600–64,999 263 (27.3) 94 (26.5) 40 (29.6)  
 $65,000–103,999 277 (28.8) 105 (29.6) 30 (22.2)  
 $104,000+ 219 (22.7) 87 (24.5) 27 (20.0)  
BMI (mean, SD) 26.1 (5.3) 26.6 (5.4) 26.9 (6.3) 0.1
Any pre-injury comorbidity on list of 18 specific items 726 (55.7) 286 (56.4) 128 (61.8) 0.2
Current smoking 222 (17.0) 87 (17.2) 40 (19.3) 0.7
Alcohol intake - audit-C score (mean, SD) 3.25 (2.56) 3.37 (2.54) 3.21 (2.86) 0.6
Crash type     < 0.0001
 Car driver 522 (40.1) 143 (28.2) 58 (28.2)  
 Car passenger 143 (11.0) 47 (9.3) 13 (6.3)  
 Motorbike driver or passenger 329 (25.3) 197 (38.9) 102 (49.5)  
 Bicyclist 210 (16.1) 76 (15.0) 13 (6.3)  
 Pedestrian or skateboard 99 (7.6) 44 (8.7) 20 (9.7)  
Perceived danger of death     < 0.0001
 Overwhelming 120 (9.3) 59 (11.9) 28 (14.3)  
 Great 182 (14.1) 87 (17.5) 43 (21.9)  
 Moderate 238 (18.5) 101 (20.4) 52 (26.5)  
 Small 265 (20.6) 96 (19.4) 28 (14.3)  
 None 482 (37.5) 153 (30.9) 45 (23.0)  
Perceived danger of disability     < 0.0001
 Overwhelming 102 (8.6) 62 (13.5) 34 (18.1)  
 Great 195 (16.5) 99 (21.6) 44 (23.4)  
 Moderate 303 (25.6) 111 (24.2) 49 (26.1)  
 Small 293 (24.8) 94 (20.5) 32 (17.0)  
 None 291 (24.6) 93 (20.3) 29 (15.4)  
Self-report of psychological injury in accident 317 (24.3) 104 (20.5) 49 (24.7) 0.2
Self-report of regions injured     
 Head or face 390 (29.9) 149 (29.4) 64 (30.9) 0.9
 Neck 508 (39.0) 119 (23.5) 39 (18.8) < 0.0001
 Spine or back 520 (39.9) 175 (34.5) 82 (39.6) 0.1
 Torso 505 (38.7) 271 (53.5) 124 (59.9) < 0.0001
 Upper extremity 893 (68.5) 351 (69.2) 122 (58.9) 0.017
 Lower extremity 707 (54.2) 306 (60.4) 144 (69.6) < 0.0001
Self-report of predominant injury     < 0.0001
 Multiple areas 151 (13.0) 46 (9.9) 19 (9.7)  
 Head/face 104 (9.0) 28 (6.0) 9 (4.6)  
 Neck 143 (12.3) 19 (4.1) 9 (4.6)  
 Spine/back 74 (6.4) 29 (6.3) 17 (8.7)  
 Torso 212 (18.3) 123 (26.5) 56 (28.6)  
 Lower extremity 198 (17.1) 115 (24.8) 68 (34.7)  
 Upper extremity 278 (24.0) 104 (22.4) 18 (9.2)