Skip to main content

Table 4 Results from the generalized linear model to predict the direct non-specific medical costs (EUR) by self-reported mental distress, controlled for socio-demographic characteristics of the sample

From: Socio-economic consequences of mental distress: quantifying the impact of self-reported mental distress on the days of incapacity to work and medical costs in a two-year period: a longitudinal study in Germany

  Non-specific costs in the first year Non-specific costs in the second year
M 95% CI Exp(B) 95% CI p-value M 95% CI Exp(B) 95% CI p-value
Constant     1217.15 1016.57 1457.31 < .001     1302.23 1082.57 1566.46 < .001
Gender
 Malea 2799.9 2174.8 3604.7 1.00     3142.1 2415.0 4088.0 1.00    
 Female 3191.1 2527.0 4029.9 1.14 1.00 1.30 .053 3207.3 2507.0 4103.3 1.02 0.89 1.17 .761
Age groups
 18–33 yearsa 2682.3 2078.7 3461.0 1.00     2760.1 2111.1 3608.7 1.00    
 34–49 years 3008.9 2370.6 3819.0 1.12 0.99 1.27 .072 3099.7 2413.6 3980.9 1.12 0.98 1.28 .083
 50–65 years 3309.2 2613.7 4189.8 1.23 1.09 1.40 .001 3739.3 2917.0 4793.3 1.35 1.19 1.54 < .001
Marital status
 Marrieda 2947.5 2330.6 3727.7 1.00     3055.6 2387.9 3909.9 1.00    
 Not married 3031.3 2380.1 3860.7 1.03 0.94 1.13 .545 3298.1 2557.3 4253.5 1.08 0.98 1.19 .108
Years of school education
 13 years (A-Level)a 3059.7 2401.1 3899.0 1.00     2833.3 2193.2 3660.3 1.00    
 10 years 2870.0 2267.9 3632.0 0.94 0.85 1.04 .221 2609.4 2033.0 3349.1 0.92 0.83 1.03 .131
 9 years 3123.5 2466.3 3955.8 1.02 0.91 1.15 .731 3620.8 2822.6 4644.8 1.28 1.13 1.44 < .001
 No school-leaving certificate 2910.6 2099.8 4034.4 0.95 0.73 1.23 .707 3793.8 2732.5 5267.5 1.34 1.04 1.73 .024
Employment Status
 Employeda 2111.4 1923.4 2317.9 1.00     2474.8 2253.9 2717.2 1.00    
 Unemployed 4231.7 2693.3 6648.7 2.00 1.27 3.16 .003 4072.2 2522.1 6574.8 1.65 1.01 2.67 .044
Mental distress category (HADS)
 No casea 2031.0 1588.2 2597.4 1.00     2259.5 1744.5 2926.6 1.00    
 Mild case 2329.7 1810.8 2997.2 1.15 1.03 1.27 .010 2635.1 2024.0 3430.7 1.17 1.05 1.30 .005
 Moderate case 3048.4 2389.3 3889.4 1.50 1.36 1.66 < .001 3292.0 2546.0 4256.6 1.46 1.31 1.62 < .001
 Severe case 5543.7 4273.8 7167.5 2.73 2.30 3.23 < .001 5181.3 3952.3 6792.3 2.29 1.92 2.74 < .001
  1. Note. N = 2.287. t0 Assessment of predictor variables, M Mean non-specific direct costs in Euro per person and year, CI 95% confidence interval, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. areference category. Method = log-link function, Tweedie-distribution of residuals