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Table 3 Results from the generalized linear model to predict the specific days of incapacity to work (due to mental illness) by self-reported mental distress, controlled for socio-demographic characteristics of the sample

From: Socio-economic consequences of mental distress: quantifying the impact of self-reported mental distress on the days of incapacity to work and medical costs in a two-year period: a longitudinal study in Germany

  Specific DIW in the first year Specific DIW in the second year
M 95% CI Exp(B) 95% CI p-value M 95% CI Exp(B) 95% CI p-value
Constant     0.78 0.36 1.69 .533     1.25 0.58 2.69 .567
Gender
 Malea 11.2 5.1 24.5 1.00     10.2 4.4 23.3 1.00    
 Female 17.5 9.1 33.9 1.57 0.91 2.69 .373 15.1 7.4 30.9 1.48 0.87 2.52 .147
Age groups
 18–33 yearsa 11.1 5.0 24.5 1.00     11.3 4.9 26.1 1.00    
 34–49 years 16.3 8.1 32.5 1.47 0.89 2.41 .129 11.5 5.4 24.5 1.01 0.62 1.65 .964
 50–65 years 15.2 7.7 29.7 1.37 0.83 2.26 .221 14.6 7.1 30.0 1.29 0.79 2.09 .309
Marital status
 Marrieda 14.2 7.2 28.1 1.00     11.2 5.4 23.4 1.00    
 Not married 13.7 6.8 27.9 0.96 0.68 1.36 .835 13.6 6.4 29.2 1.22 0.87 1.70 .258
Years of school education
 13 years (A-Level)a 10.8 5.2 22.6 1.00     7.3 3.3 16.1 1.00    
 10 years 13.1 6.7 25.8 1.21 0.80 1.83 .360 10.2 4.8 21.7 1.41 0.92 2.15 .114
 9 years 12.1 6.0 24.6 1.12 0.70 1.79 .636 13.1 6.0 28.4 1.80 1.13 2.85 .013
 No school-leaving certificate 22.1 8.7 56.5 2.04 0.93 4.48 .074 24.2 9.5 61.6 3.32 1.51 7.28 .003
Employment Status
 Employeda 8.4 6.0 11.7 1.00     9.0 6.5 12.5 1.00    
 Unemployed 23.4 6.6 82.5 2.80 0.80 9.86 .108 17.0 4.2 68.0 1.88 0.46 7.59 .377
Mental distress category (HADS)
 No casea 2.6 1.2 5.6 1.00     4.3 2.0 9.3 1.00    
 Mild case 7.4 3.5 15.8 2.83 1.78 4.49 < .001 6.2 2.8 14.0 1.46 0.94 2.28 .095
 Moderate case 27.5 13.6 55.9 10.50 7.04 15.67 < .001 20.1 9.5 42.4 4.71 3.21 6.90 < .001
 Severe case 71.5 34.7 147.1 27.26 15.79 47.07 < .001 43.9 19.5 99.0 10.29 5.97 17.72 < .001
  1. Note. N = 2.287. t0 Assessment of predictor variables. M Mean days of incapacity to work, CI 95% confidence interval, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. areference category. Method = log-link function, Tweedie-distribution of residuals