Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of pooled sample characteristics of the studied children in 57 LMIC

From: Mind the gap: what explains the rural-nonrural inequality in diarrhoea among under-five children in low and medium-income countries? A decomposition analysis

Characteristics N Weighted % Weighted (%) Rural Weighted Diarrhoea Prevalence (%)
Overall Rural Non-rural
(a)
Age
 Infant 164,438 20.7 68.5 *17.4 *18.0 *16.1
 12–59 months 631,712 79.4 67.9 13.4 13.7 12.7
Sex
 Female 389,173 48.9 68.2 *13.8 *14.1 *13.1
 Male 406,977 51.1 67.9 14.6 15.1 13.7
Household Head
 Male 669,287 84.1 68.8 *14.2 14.6 *13.2
 Female 126,863 15.9 64.1 14.5 14.7 14.2
Maternal age
 15–24 years 234,550 29.5 70.7 *16.4 *16.3 *16.5
 25–34 years 414,014 52.0 66.3 13.2 13.7 12.3
 35–49 years 147,586 18.5 68.7 13.4 14.1 12.0
Maternal Education
 No education 273,056 34.3 83.2 *15.8 *15.7 *15.9
 Primary 202,835 25.5 73.9 16.3 16.3 16.3
 Secondary or higher 320,257 40.2 52.2 11.7 11.7 11.7
Household Wealth Index
 Poorest 202,853 25.5 92.3 *15.1 *15.2 *13.8
 Poorer 178,258 22.4 86.7 14.8 14.9 13.9
 Middle 158,228 19.9 74.2 14.2 14.4 13.7
 Richer 139,713 17.6 50.7 13.9 14.0 13.8
 Richest 117,098 14.7 21.3 12.5 11.5 12.8
Employment
 Employed 526,983 66.2 69.4 *13.3 *13.7 *12.3
 Unemployed 269,167 33.8 65.4 16.0 16.4 15.3
Media access
 No 316,993 39.9 85.0 *15.2 *15.3 *14.8
 Yes 478,517 60.2 57.6 14.2 14.0 13.1
Drinking water sources
 Unimproved sources 175,663 22.8 87.0 *16.9 *16.8 *17.3
 Improved sources 595,332 77.2 63.1 13.6 13.9 13.1
Toilet type
 Unimproved sources 388,386 50.4 85.3 *15.4 *15.3 *15.9
 Improved sources 382,305 49.6 51.2 13.1 13.5 12.7
Marital status
 Never married 23,560 3.0 50.8 *16.9 *17.8 *15.9
 Currently married 739,740 92.9 68.9 14.0 14.4 23.1
 Formerly married 32,850 4.1 61.1 17.1 17.1 17.0
Cooking Fuel
 Unclean/Biomass 581,710 77.0 80.1 *14.9 *14.8 *15.1
 Clean Fuel 173,921 23.0 33.3 12.4 13.3 *11.9
Housing materials
 Unimproved sources 676,227 89.5 70.9 *14.8 *15.1 *14.3
 Improved source 79,157 10.5 47.2 10.0 10.1 9.9
Weight at birth
 Average+ 643,472 84.0 67.4 *13.6 *14.0 *12.8
 Small 90,809 11.9 70.0 17.2 17.7 16.0
 Very small 31,924 4.2 70.9 20.1 20.3 19.5
Total 796,150 100.0 68.0 14.2 14.6 13.4
(b)
Birth Interval
 1st Birth 223,779 28.2 63.0 *13.1 *13.5 *12.5
  < 36 months 308,310 38.8 73.5 15.0 15.2 14.4
 36+ months 262,278 33.0 66.2 14.3 14.7 13.4
Birth Order
 1st 223,777 28.1 63.0 *13.1 *13.5 *12.5
 2nd 192,088 24.1 64.5 13.1 13.4 12.5
 3rd 129,829 16.3 67.8 14.2 14.4 13.7
 4+ 250,456 31.5 75.9 16.2 *16.3 15.6
Neighbourhood SES
 Highest 159,709 20.1 37.6 *9.8 *8.8 *10.4
 2 158,969 20.0 22.6 14.9 12.9 15.5
 3 160,077 20.1 87.4 15.8 15.8 15.6
 4 159,153 20.0 98.1 16.7 16.7 16.2
 Lowest 158,242 19.9 98.2 14.0 14.1 9.9
Total 796,150 100.0 68.0 14.2 14.6 13.4
  1. *significant at 5% Chi-square test