Skip to main content

Table 4 Logistic regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals) of non-work-related and work-related factors with psychological distress (MHI-5 cut-off <=52 points) in the working-age population. Variables were included in the model simultaneously

From: Factors contributing to psychological distress in the working population, with a special reference to gender difference

  Men (N = 15,357) Women (N = 18, 271)
OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Sociodemographic factors
 Age (years)
  20–34 1.28 (0.86–1.92) 0.23 1.39 (0.97–2.00) 0.07
  35–49 1.07 (0.75–1.53) 0.72 1.16 (0.84–1.60) 0.38
  50–65 1.00   1.00  
 Education (years)
  < =12 0.79 (0.56–1.11) 0.18 1.09 (0.80–1.49) 0.58
  13–16 0.90 (0.67–1.23) 0.51 0.98 (0.77–1.26) 0.89
  17+ 1.00   1.00  
 Marital status
  Married/cohabiting 1.00   1.00  
  Divorced/separated/widowed 1.02 (0.60–1.71) 0.95 1.09 (0.75–1.57) 0.65
  Single 1.33 (0.77–2.33) 0.31 1.03 (0.68–1.56) 0.88
Other not work-related factors
 Lives alone 0.71 (0.42–1.22) 0.21 1.26 (0.83–1.91) 0.28
 Has children under 18 years of age 0.69 (0.50–0.96) 0.0075 0.79 (0.58–1.07) 0.13
 At-risk drinkinga 1.40 (1.10–1.78) 0.0057 1.16 (0.92–1.46) 0.21
 Current smoker 1.46 (1.09–1.94) 0.0103 1.40 (1.09–1.81) 0.0091
 Lonely quite often or all the time 6.20 (4.17–9.20) < 0.0001 6.06 (4.51–8.13) < 0.0001
 Active member in societies, hobby groups, etc. 0.88 (0.67–1.16) 0.37 0.68 (0.53–0.88) 0.0034
 Difficulty in covering household costs 1.68 (1.31–2.16) 0.0001 1.70 (1.36–2.11) < 0.0001
 How many persons give you practical help?
  No one 1.00   1.00  
  1–2 persons 0.40 (0.20–0.81) 0.01 0.72 (0.34–1.53) 0.39
  3–6 persons 0.35 (0.17–0.71) 0.004 0.62 (0.28–1.35) 0.23
 How many persons give you emotional support?
  No one 1.00   1.00  
  1–2 persons 0.83 (0.31–2.22) 0.72 0.41 (0.15–1.14) 0.09
  3–6 persons 0.51 (0.19–1.43) 0.20 0.34 (0.12–0.97) 0.04
 Helping parents outside the home 0.78 (0.61–1.01) 0.0569 1.06 (0.86–1.32) 0.57
 Helping children outside the home 0.82 (0.62–1.09) 0.17 0.93 (0.74–1.17) 0.55
 Helping someone else outside the home 1.05 (0.80–1.38) 0.70 1.20 (0.96–1.50) 0.11
Work-related factors
 Work satisfaction
  Extremely satisfied 1.00   1.00  
  Fairly satisfied 1.70 (1.11–2.60) 0.01 1.74 (1.24–2.44) 0.001
  Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 2.96 (1.88–4.66) < 0.0001 2.35 (1.58–3.51) < 0.0001
  Fairly/extremely dissatisfied 6.61 (4.14–11.55) < 0.0001 6.08 (4.09–9.04) < 0.0001
 Mental strain of work
  Low 1.00   1.00  
  Moderate 1.31 (0.84–2.03) 0.23 0.97 (0.68–1.41) 0.89
  High 2.71 (1.66–4.41) 0.0001 1.34 (0.88–2.04) 0.17
 Physical strain of work
  Low 1.00   1.00  
  Moderate 0.90 (0.69–1.18) 0.46 0.84 (0.66–1.05) 0.13
  High 1.19 (0.78–1.80) 0.43 0.86 (0.57–1.28) 0.45
 When I come home, I stop thinking about my workb 0.64 (0.50–0.83) 0.0008 0.58 (0.46–0-73) < 0.0001
 I feel I am neglecting domestic issues because of my workb 1.53 (1.14–2.04) 0.004 1.60 (1.25–2.04) 0.0002
 I sometimes ignore my family when I am wholly absorbed in my workb 0.94 (0.69–1.27) 0.67 1.30 (1.00–1.70) 0.0497
 I often find it difficult to concentrate on my work because of domestic issuesb 3.24 (2.42–4.32) 0.02 2.70 (2.08–3.49) < 0.0001
 I have more energy to be with the children when I also go to workb 0.72 (0.54–0.95) < 0.0001 0.77 (0.59–0.99) 0.047
 I feel inadequacy as a parentb 2.21 (1.64–2.98) 0.03 2.04 (1.57–2.64) < 0.0001
  1. Bold ratios: statistically significant results
  2. Variables were included in the model simultaneously
  3. OR Odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  4. aAt-risk drinking is assessed as AUDIT-C, men > = 6 points and women > = 5 points
  5. bN indicates the number of yes answers