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Table 3 Associations of study variables with psychological distress by gender (MHI-5 cut-off point <=52) (%)

From: Factors contributing to psychological distress in the working population, with a special reference to gender difference

% Men (N = 15,059) Women (N = 18,050)
Psychological distress (N = 1321) No psychological distress (N = 13,738) P value Psychological distress (N = 1984) No psychological distress (N = 16,066) P value
% (N) % (N) % (N) % (N)
Age group
 20–34 (21.4) 12.0 (388) 88.0 (2977) < 0.0001 15.6 (554) 84.4 (3138) < 0.0001
 35–49 (36.7) 9.6 (507) 90.4 (5103)   10.9 (688) 89.1 (5865)  
 50–65 (41.9) 7.5 (426) 92.5 (5658)   9.9 (742) 90.1 (7063)  
Education years
 < =12 (32.0) 10.0 (541) 90.0 (5355) 0.0756 13.1 (548) 86.9 (3992) 0.0013
 13–16 (39.1) 9.9 (464) 90.1 (4753)   11.5 (844) 88.5 (6982)  
 17+ (28.9) 8.6 (316) 91.4 (3630)   10.7 (592) 89.3 (5093)  
Marital status
 Married/cohabiting (76.7) 8.1 (879) 91.9 (10,743) < 0.0001 10.0 (1238) 90.0 (11,814) < 0.0001
 Separated/divorced/widowed (9.9) 14.2 (123) 85.8 (11,622)   14.7 (308) 85.3 (1879)  
 Single (13.4) 14.5 (280) 85.5 (1746)   16.7 (365) 83.3 (1895)  
Lives alone
 Yes (13.7) 14.7 (262) 85.3 (1690) < 0.0001 15.4 (385) 84.6 (2243) < 0.0001
 No (86.3) 8.7 (1059) 91.3 (12,048)   11.0 (1599) 89.0 (13,824)  
Has children under 18 years of age
 Yes (53.1) 8.6 (498) 91.4 (5565) < 0.0001 11.1 (674) 88.9 (5699) 0.0023
 No (46.9) 11.6 (495) 88.4 (4232)   12.9 (777) 87.1 (5604)  
At-risk drinkinga
 Yes (28.4) 12.0 (606) 88.0 (4930) < 0.0001 15.2 (574) 84.8 (3414) < 0.0001
 No (71.6) 8.1 (705) 91.9 (8808)   10.6 (1410) 89.4 (12,653)  
Current smoker
 Yes (22.3) 13.6 (291) 86.4 (1987) < 0.0001 19.2 (411) 80.8 (1869) < 0.0001
 No (77.7) 8.6 (646) 91.4 (6908)   10.7 (900) 89.3 (7503)  
Loneliness
 Never/seldom/sometimes (93.8) 7.1 (933) 92.9 (13,285) < 0.0001 8.8 (1394) 91.2 (15,381) < 0.0001
 Often/all the time (6.2) 49.3 (385) 50.7 (409)   48.1 (587) 51.9 (669)  
Active member in societies, hobby groups, etc.
 Yes (29.5) 6.9 (283) 93.1 (4182) < 0.0001 8.0 (397) 92.0 (4775) < 0.0001
 No (70.5) 10.7 (1020) 89.3 (9367)   13.1 (1553) 86.9 (11,021)  
How difficult or easy is it to cover household costs?
 Fairly difficult/very difficult (24.0) 29.0 (251) 71.0 (655) < 0.0001 29.2 (369) 70.8 (914) < 0.0001
 Fairly easy /very easy (76.0) 8.2 (1063) 91.8 (12,998)   10.1 (1592) 89.9 (15,013)  
How many persons give you practical help?
 No one (1.3) 39.8 (77) 60.2 (128) < 0.0001 40.8 (75) 59.2 (119) < 0.0001
 1–2 persons (54.9) 11.8 (863) 88.2 (7215)   13.9 (1223) 86.1 (8161)  
 3–6 persons (43.8) 5.8 (331) 94.2 (5890)   8.1 (593) 91.9 (7187)  
How many persons give you emotional support?
 No one (0.9) 40.9 (54) 59.1 (85) < 0.0001 45.2 (61) 54.8 (79) < 0.0001
 1–2 persons (58.9) 10.9 (931) 89.1 (8531)   13.8 (1206) 86.2 (8120)  
 3–6 persons (40.2) 6.2 (288) 93.8 (4646)   8.3 (628) 91.7 (7291)  
Helping a parent outside the household regularly, at least once a month
 Yes (42.9) 9.1 (382) 90.9 (4099) 0.0077 11.7 (634) 88.3 (5067) 0.1040
 No (57.1) 10.7 (649) 89.3 (5789)   12.6 (859) 87.4 (6273)  
Helping a child outside the household regularly, at least once a month
 Yes (34.6) 9.3 (264) 90.7 (2837) 0.0774 11.1 (486) 88.9 (4077) 0.0075
 No (65.4) 10.5 (706) 89.5 (6332)   12.8 (913) 87.2 (6554)  
Helping someone else outside the household regularly, at least once a month
 Yes (35.1) 10.6 (323) 89.4 (2960) 0.299 13.6 (617) 86.4 (4165) 0.0008
 No (64.9) 9.9 (687) 90.1 (6614)   11.5 (852) 88.5 (6857)  
Work satisfaction
 Extremely satisfied (20.2) 3.8 (93) 96.2 (2720) < 0.0001 5.0 (168) 95.0 (3620) < 0.0001
 Fairly satisfied (56.8) 6.2 (467) 93.8 (7965)   8.7 (836) 91.3 (9300)  
 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (15.1) 15.3 (357) 84.7 (2069)   19.3 (465) 80.7 (2008)  
 Fairly/extremely dissatisfied (7.9) 33.7 (387) 66.3 (811)   36.4 (490) 63.6 (895)  
Mental strain of work
 Low (13.8) 4.4 (90) 95.6 (2212) < 0.0001 6.0 (112) 94.0 (2024) < 0.0001
 Moderate (71.7) 7.9 (737) 92.1 (9602)   9.7 (1160) 90.3 (11,622)  
 High (14.5) 24.4 (460) 75.6 (1561)   26.0 (663) 74.0 (1974)  
Physical strain of work
 Low (52.8) 8.3 (582) 91.7 (7040) < 0.0001 10.4 (926) 89.6 (8549) < 0.0001
 Moderate (40.5) 9.2 (524) 90.8 (5573)   11.8 (775) 88.2 (6136)  
 High (6.7) 19.1 (187) 80.9 (853)   21.0 (226) 79.0 (874)  
When I come home, I stop thinking about my work
 Yes (56.3) 6.9 (492) 93.1 (7440) < 0.0001 8.1 (787) 91.9 (9621) < 0.0001
 No (43.7) 13.0 (814) 87.0 (6116)   16.9 (1168) 83.1 (6185)  
I feel that I am neglecting domestic issues because of my work
 Yes (37.8) 15.5 (761) 84.5 (4583) < 0.0001 18.5 (1221) 81.5 (5729) < 0.0001
 No (62.2) 6.3 (543) 93.7 (8957)   7.3 (729) 92.7 (10,053)  
I sometimes ignore my family when I am wholly absorbed in my work
 Yes (26.4) 14.4 (549) 85.6 (3625) < 0.0001 18.9 (786) 81.1 (3622) < 0.0001
 No (73.6) 7.8 (751) 92.2 (9883)   9.3 (1160) 90.7 (12,146)  
I often find it difficult to concentrate on my work because of domestic issues
 Yes (9.9) 28.7 (419) 71.3 (1106) < 0.0001 34.5 (556) 65.5 (1118) < 0.0001
 No (90.1) 7.3 (881) 92.7 (12,425)   9.1 (1395) 90.9 (14,651)  
I have more energy to be with the children when I also go to work
 Yes (35.1) 6.9 (350) 93.1 (4928) < 0.0001 9.8 (563) 90.2 (5423) < 0.0001
 No (64.9) 11.1 (936) 88.9 (8425)   12.7 (1362) 87.3 (10,147)  
I feel inadequacy as a parent
 Yes (17.8) 20.6 (439) 79.4 (1824) < 0.0001 20.8 (686) 79.2 (2756) < 0.0001
 No (82.2) 7.7 (850) 92.3 (11,546)   9.4 (1243) 90.6 (12,830)  
  1. Calculated using the inverse probability weights (see Methods)
  2. MHI-5 Mental Health Inventory
  3. aAt-risk drinking is assessed as AUDIT-C, men > = 6 points and women > = 5 points