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Table 2 Characteristics of the sample by gender (numbers, percentages, means, and 95% confidence intervals)

From: Factors contributing to psychological distress in the working population, with a special reference to gender difference

  Men (n = 15,140) Women (n = 18,112) P value
n (%) n (%)
MHI-5 (cut-off <=52 points) 1321 (8.8) 1984 (11.0) < 0.0001
MHI-5 mean (95% CI) 75.8 (75.6–76.1) 74.4 (74.1–74.6)  
Age (years)
 20–34 3496 (28.7) 3852 (24.5) < 0.0001
 35–49 5834 (39.7) 6791 (38.2)  
 50–65 6322 (31.6) 8087 (37.4)  
Age (mean) 42.4 (42.2–42.6) 43.9 (43.7–44.0)  
Education (years)
 < = 12 6224 (43.0) 4793 (26.9) < 0.0001
 13–16 5367 (33.6) 8089 (43.4)  
 17+ 4061 (23.4) 5849 (29.7)  
Marital status
 Married/cohabiting 12,016 (76.1) 13,495 (72.9) < 0.0001
 Separated/divorced/widowed 1017 (6.7) 2255 (12.3)  
 Single 2105 (17.2) 2360 (14.8)  
Lives alone
 Yes 2011 (14.5) 2703 (14.9) 0.263
 No 13,641 (85.5) 16,028 (85.1)  
Has children under 18 years of age
 < 3 years old 1605 (21.9) 840 (9.7) < 0.0001
 3 to 6 years old 2032 (26.2) 1903 (20.2) < 0.0001
 7 to 17 years old 4459 (44.8) 5277 (44.2) 0.373
At-risk drinking (AUDIT-C)a 5678 (37.5) 4087 (22.8) < 0.0001
Current smoker 2350 (25.6) 2346 (23.0) < 0.0001
Loneliness
 Never/seldom/sometimes 14,424 (94.1) 16,988 (92.7) < 0.0001
 Quite often/all the time 810 (5.9) 1273 (7.3)  
Active member in societies, hobby groups, etc. 4609 (28.9) 5318 (28.1) 0.0962
Difficulty in covering household costs 3583 (25.2) 4567 (26.5) 0.011
How many persons give you practical help?
 No one 217 (1.6) 201 (1.2) 6.64
 1–2 persons 8303 (54.4) 9697 (53.5) 0.0013
 3–6 persons 6412 (43.0) 7957 (45.3)  
How many persons give you emotional support?
 No one 150 (1.1) 146 (0.8) < 0.0001
 1–2 persons 9725 (63.8) 9639 (53.4)  
 3–6 persons 5096 (35.1) 8108 (45.8)  
Helping someone outside the household regularly, at least once a month
 Parent 4629 (41.3) 5846 (44.3) < 0.0001
 Child 3204 (28.6) 4691 (36.6) < 0.0001
 Other 3394 (32.5) 4921 (39.3) < 0.0001
Work satisfaction
 Extremely satisfied 2889 (18.6) 3883 (20.9) < 0.0001
 Fairly satisfied 8664 (56.0) 10,420 (56.6)  
 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 2508 (16.8) 2547 (14.2)  
 Fairly - extremely dissatisfied 1233 (8.6) 1431 (8.2)  
Mental strain of work
 Low 2359 (16.7) 2202 (12.9) < 0.0001
 Moderate 10,624 (69.2) 13,118 (72.0)  
 High 2089 (14.0) 2708 (15.1)  
Physical strain of work
 Low 7796 (47.8) 9710 (52.1) < 0.0001
 Moderate 6299 (44.0) 7121 (40.9)  
 High 1080 (8.2) 1142 (7.0)  
When I come home, I stop thinking about my work b 8147 (55.4) 10,709 (59.6) < 0.0001
I feel I am neglecting domestic issues because of my workb 5502 (36.2) 7126 (39.2) < 0.0001
I sometimes ignore my family when I am wholly absorbed in my workb 4290 (27.1) 4512 (24.1) < 0.0001
I often find it difficult to concentrate on my work because of domestic issuesb 1575 (10.9) 1718 (10.1) 0.020
I have more energy to be with the children when I also go to workb 5419 (34.9) 6159 (34.5) 0.428
I feel inadequacy as a parentb 2324 (15.1) 3538 (20.0) < 0.0001
  1. aAt-risk drinking is assessed as AUDIT-C, men > = 6 points and women > = 5 points
  2. bN indicates the number of yes answers