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Table 2 Single-exposure models

From: Association between urban environment and mental health in Brussels, Belgium

Exposure   GHQ-4 Anxiety disorders Depressive disorders Sleeping disorders
   Adj. OR [95% IC] p Adj. OR [95% IC] p Adj. OR [95% IC] p Adj. OR [95% IC] p
BC (μg/m3) Tertile 2 vs 1 1.36 [0.89–2.07] 0.15 1.51 [0.83–2.75] 0.17 1.60 [0.99–2.59] 0.05 1.35 [0.91–2.01] 0.13
Tertile 3 vs 1 1.24 [0.77–1.99] 0.38 1.51 [0.83–2.74] 0.17 1.98 [1.20–3.26] 0.008 1.34 [0.89–2.01] 0.16
1 μg/m3 1.00 [0.76–1.33] 0.95 1.07 [0.79–1.45] 0.65 1.33 [0.99–1.78] 0.05 1.12 [0.88–1.43] 0.35
NO2 (μg/m3) Tertile 2 vs 1 1.02 [0.68–1.55] 0.92 1.66 [0.94–2.93] 0.08 1.87 [1.18–2.96] 0.007 1.07 [0.73–1.58] 0.72
Tertile 3 vs 1 0.95 [0.62–1.45] 0.8 1.51 [0.87–2.61] 0.14 1.58 [0.99–2.51] 0.05 1.20 [0.81–1.78] 0.35
1 μg/m3 0.99 [0.96–1.03] 0.72 1.01 [0.97–1.04] 0.65 1.02 [0.99–1.05] 0.12 1.01 [0.99–1.04] 0.32
PM2.5 (μg/m3) Tertile 2 vs 1 1.08 [0.66–1.76] 0.77 0.74 [0.39–1.42] 0.36 0.79 [0.47–1.33] 0.38 1.01 [0.63–1.60] 0.97
Tertile 3 vs 1 1.05 [0.55–1.99] 0.88 0.80 [0.36–1.70] 0.57 1.34 [0.71–2.51] 0.36 1.60 [0.89–2.87] 0.11
1 μg/m3 1.01 [0.85–1.20] 0.88 1.05 [0.86–1.29] 0.62 1.12 [0.95–1.32] 0.19 1.10 [0.94–1.28] 0.23
PM10 (μg/m3) Tertile 2 vs 1 1.19 [0.74–1.93] 0.47 1.31 [0.71–2.40] 0.38 1.93 [1.13–3.29] 0.02 1.29 [0.82–2.01] 0.27
Tertile 3 vs 1 1.10 [0.60–2.04] 0.75 1.10 [0.50–2.41] 0.82 3.02 [1.49–6.10] 0.002 1.66 [0.94–2.93] 0.08
1 μg/m3 1.06 [0.77–1.45] 0.71 1.06 [0.71–1.58] 0.79 1.75 [1.51–2.42] 0.002 1.29 [0.96–1.72] 0.08
O3 (μg/m3) Tertile 2 vs 1 0.82 [0.54–1.25] 0.36 1.01 [0.60–1.68] 0.95 0.59 [0.38–0.92] 0.02 0.79 [0.54–1.15] 0.22
Tertile 3 vs 1 1.00 [0.66–1.51] 0.99 0.78 [0.45–1.35] 0.37 0.56 [0.37–0.89] 0.01 0.72 [0.49–1.05] 0.09
1 μg/m3 0.98 [0.92–1.05] 0.64 0.97 [0.89–1.05] 0.43 0.88 [0.55–0.95] 0.001 0.95 [0.89–1.01] 0.11
Veg. coverage 600 m buffer (%) Tertile 2 vs 1 1.28 [0.86–1.92] 0.22 1.06 [0.63–1.78] 0.81 1.12 [0.73–1.77] 0.59 1.12 [0.77–1.64] 0.53
Tertile 3 vs 1 1.01 [0.66–1.56] 0.96 1.02 [0.61–1.72] 0.93 0.88 [0.56–1.49] 0.59 0.93 [0.64–1.36] 0.73
25% increase 0.98 [0.80–1.21] 0.85 1.06 [0.80–1.41] 0.65 0.94 [0.75–1.17] 0.36 0.98 [0.80–1.19] 0.85
Veg. coverage 1 km buffer (%) Tertile 2 vs 1 1.32 [0.88–1.97] 0.17 1.14 [0.68–1.90] 0.62 1.12 [0.73–1.72] 0.59 1.09 [0.76–1.56] 0.64
Tertile 3 vs 1 0.95 [0.62–1.47] 0.82 1.04 [0.62–1.75] 0.87 0.77 [0.49–1.20] 0.25 1.13 [0.77–1.67] 0.53
25% increase 0.99 [0.80–1.24] 0.97 1.02 [0.76–1.36] 0.89 0.91 [0.72–1.13] 0.39 1.02 [0.84–1.23] 0.86
Street visible veg. coverage (and 10 m on either sides) (%) Tertile 2 vs 1 0.98 [0.67–1.52] 0.92 1.00 [0.61–1.65] 0.97 1.04 [0.68–1.57] 0.86 1.24 [0.84–1.80] 0.27
Tertile 3 vs 1 0.92 [0.63–1.42] 0.68 0.80 [0.47–1.34] 0.39 0.77 [0.50–1.21] 0.26 1.08 [0.74–1.56] 0.68
25% increase 1.02 [0.86–1.23] 0.84 1.02 [0.81–1.31] 0.81 0.91 [0.73–1.27] 0.38 0.99 [0.83–1.18] 0.88
View of green Tertile 2 vs 1 1.23 [0.82–1.84] 0.3 1.38 [0.82–2.33] 0.22 1.03 [0.66–1.59] 0.89 0.81 [0.56–1.18] 0.27
Tertile 3 vs 1 1.08 [0.70–1.65] 0.73 1.42 [0.82–2.45] 0.21 1.10 [0.69–1.75] 0.68 0.90 [0.60–1.34] 0.61
10 units increase 1.01 [0.88–1.16] 0.87 1.09 [0.91–1.31] 0.33 1.07 [0.90–1.22] 0.43 0.99 [0.85–1.22] 0.83
Tree density <P50 tree vs 0 0.92 [0.61–1.39] 0.71 0.96 [0.57–1.62] 0.87 0.82 [0.52–1.27] 0.37 0.66 [0.45–0.99] 0.04
>P50 tree vs 0 0.99 [0.65–1.49] 0.96 0.97 [0.56–1.69] 0.92 0.90 [0.57–1.42] 0.65 0.70 [0.47–1.05] 0.09
25 trees/100 m increase 1.03 [0.89–1.19] 0.69 0.97 [0.80–1.66] 0.93 0.99 [0.93–1.05] 0.67 0.94 [0.62–1.40] 0.76
Noise from multiple source Lden (dB) Tertile 2 vs 1 1.00 [0.66–1.51] 0.88 0.73 [0.44–1.32] 0.34 0.86 [0.54–1.38] 0.54 1.27 [0.84–1.93] 0.25
Tertile 3 vs 1 0.88 [0.59–1.32] 0.43 1.01 [0.59–1.73] 0.97 1.46 [0.91–2.33] 0.11 1.39 [0.95–2.02] 0.09
1 dB 1.00 [0.98–1.04] 0.75 1.00 [0.97–1.03] 0.75 1.03 [0.99–1.06] 0.11 1.00 [0.98–1.04] 0.33
Street canyon effect Tertile 2 vs 1 1.00 [0.66–1.49] 0.85 0.88 [0.50–1.54] 0.66 1.31 [0.83–2.07] 0.24 0.88 [0.58–1.35] 0.98
Tertile 3 vs 1 1.15 [0.77–1.71] 0.23 1.17 [0.71–1.94] 0.54 1.31 [0.81–2.10] 0.27 0.91 [0.62–1.74] 0.35
1 unit increase 1.15 [0.78–1.69] 0.22 1.03 [0.64–1.68] 0.88 1.16 [0.78–1.72] 0.46 1.03 [0.74–1.44] 0.84
Street corridor effect [0–2] >P50 vs < P50 0.91 [0.58–1.43] 0.65 1.12 [0.62–2.00] 0.7 1.18 [0.70–1.98] 0.56 0.88 [0.58–1.35] 0.55
2 (max) vs < P50 1.02 [0.68–1.52] 0.75 0.88 [0.52–1.49] 0.63 1.31 [0.81–2.12] 0.22 0.91 [0.62–1.74] 0.65
1 unit increase 1.02 [0.75–1.39] 0.88 0.88 [0.59–1.31] 0.54 1.12 [0.75–1.61] 0.58 0.97 [0.72–1.31] 0.85
  1. Notes: Models adjusted for sex, age, family composition, reported household income, highest household educational level and year