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Table 4 Interaction effects of self-harm on bullying behaviour and gender, school well-being, parental-, and friend support

From: The relationship between self-harm and bullying behaviour: results from a population based study of adolescents

  Model 1
OR (95% CI)
Bivariate effect
Model 2
OR (95% CI)
Multivariate effect
Model 3
OR (b)
Interaction effects
Neither bullied nor bullies 1.0 (ref.)   Gender*
Bullied 5.04 (4.48–5.68)*** 4.94 (4.36–5.59)*** 1.32 (0.28)*
Bullies 3.19 (2.48–4.10)*** 4.43 (3.40–5.77)*** 0.84 (−0.18)
Bully-victims 5.97 (4. 86–7.35)*** 8.29 (6.65–10.34)*** 0.68 (− 0.39)
Gender 3.34 (3.02–3.71)*** 3.73 (3.34–4.17)***  
Neither bullied nor bullies 1.0 (ref.)   Parental support*
Bullied 5.04 (4.48–5.68)*** 4.38 (3.85–4.97)*** 1.35 (0.30)*
Bullies 3.19 (2.48–4.10)*** 2.40 (1.83–3.15)*** 1.24 (0.22)
Bully-victims 5.97 (4.86–7.35)*** 4.83 (3.85–6.07)*** 1.08 (0.08)
Parental support 0.20 (0.18–0.22)*** 0.23 (0.21–0.26)***  
Neither bullied nor bullies 1.0 (ref.)   School well-being*
Bullied 5.04 (4.48–5.68)*** 2.60 (2.28–2.97)*** 1.06 (0.06)**
Bullies 3.19 (2.48–4.10)*** 1.98 (1.50–2.62)*** 1.01 (0.01)
Bully-victims 5.97 (4.86–7.35)*** 2.63 (2.08–3.32)*** 1.09 (0.09)**
School well-being 0.73 (0.72–0.74)*** 0.76 (0.75–0.78)***  
Neither bullied nor bullies 1.0 (ref.)   Friend support*
Bullied 5.04 (4.47–5.68)*** 4.93 (4.36–5.56)*** 1.68 (0.52)**
Bullies 3.19 (2.48–4.09)*** 3.10 (2.40–4.01)*** 0.78 (−0.25)
Bully-victims 5.97 (4.86–7.35)*** 6.13 (4.96–7.59)*** 0.70 (−0.35)
Friend support 0.63 (0.55–0.71)*** 0.80 (0.70–0.92)**  
  1. Note. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001. Self-harm = Self harmed last 12 months. Model 1 shows the crude OR, the bivariate associations with no controls, Model 2 shows adjusted OR with control for gender or the potential protective variables: parental support, school well-being and friend support. Model 3 shows the regression analysis with the interaction terms: bullying behaviour multiplied by gender, and bullying behaviour multiplied by the potential protective variables (parental support, school well-being and friend support). Only significant results reported