Skip to main content

Table 1 Significant differences between demographic-, psychological- and environmental variables among adolescents who self-harmed and not self-harmed (N = 14,093)

From: The relationship between self-harm and bullying behaviour: results from a population based study of adolescents

Variables Frequencies
n
Self-harm
%
Chi-square χ2 df
  Yes No   
Self-harm 14,093 15.3 84.7   
Categorical variables
Gender
 Female 7026 22.5 77.5 569.7*** 1
 Male 6970 8.0 92.0
Bullying behaviour
 Neither bullied nor bullies 11,528 10.9 89.1   
 Bullied 1526 38.1 61.9
 Bullies 318 28.0 72.0   
 Bully-victims 401 42.1 57.9 1054.0*** 3
Friendship
 Yes 12,465 14.0 86.0   
 No 1437 26.0 74.0 142.9*** 1
Social support friends
 Yes 11,878 14.5 85.5   
 No 1699 21.2 78.8 52.0*** 1
Social support parents
 Yes 11,027 10.3 89.7   
 No 2527 36.3 63.7 1086.6*** 1
Education, Mother
 High 8990 25.0 75.0   
 Low 3220 34.3 65,7 67.9*** 1
Education, Father
 High 7896 32.4 67.6   
 Low 3988 40.1 59.9 38.9*** 1
Continuous variables   M (SD) t-test Range
Depression   21.7 (6.3) 13.4 (4.8) −56.9*** 8–32
Anxiety   13.6 (5.2) 7.9 (2.8) −49.4*** 6–24
SBP   5.1 (2.7) 3.7 (1.4) −23.0*** 3–15
Parental conflict   6.5 (2.3) 4.9 (1.7) −30.3*** 3–12
Family’s financial situation   2.4 (1.1) 1.9 (0.9) −20.0*** 1–5
School well-being   13.5 (3.2) 16.4 (2.4) 38.7*** 5–20
Parental monitoring   11.0 (2.8) 12.6 (2.3) 24.1*** 4–16
  1. Note. Significant result = *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001. M Mean. SD Standard Deviation. Self-harm = Self harmed last 12 months. Bullying behaviour = Being bullied by peers at least one time a month last 12 months (the bullied)or bullying other peers at least one time a month last 12 months (bullies), or both bullying others and being bullied by peers at least one time a month last 12 months (bully-victims). SBP=School behavioural problems. Chi-square test was used to test significant differences for categorical variables, and independent sample t-test was used to test significant differences for the continuous variables