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Table 3 Five interdependent collective capabilities that emerge and work together to harness capacity in a system

From: Bottom-up innovation for health management capacity development: a qualitative case study in a South African health district

The core capability to commit and engage

Actors can mobilize resources (financial, human, organizational); create space and autonomy for independent action; motivate unwilling or unresponsive partners; plan, decide, and engage collectively to exercise their other capabilities

The capability to carry out technical, service delivery and logistical


Actors produce acceptable levels of performance; generate substantive outputs and outcomes (e.g., health or education services, employment opportunities, justice, and rule of law); sustain production over time; and add value for their clients, beneficiaries, citizens, etc

The core capability to relate and to attract support

Actors can establish and manage linkages, alliances, and/or partnerships with others to leverage resources and actions; build legitimacy in the eyes of key stakeholders; deal effectively with competition, politics, and power differentials

The capability to adapt and self-renew

Actors can adapt and modify plans and operations based on monitoring of progress and outcomes; proactively anticipate change and new challenges; learn by doing; cope with changing contexts and develop resiliency

The capability to balance diversity and coherence

Actors can develop shared short- and long-term strategies and visions; balance control, flexibility, and consistency; integrate and harmonize plans and actions in complex, multi-actor settings; and cope with cycles of stability and change

  1. Directly from source: [71]