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Table 1 Participants characteristics and associated proportion of possible COVID-19 by period

From: When lockdown policies amplify social inequalities in COVID-19 infections: evidence from a cross-sectional population-based survey in France

  Weighted distribution likely infection P-Value* likely infection prior the lockdown likely infection during the lockdown P-Value**
Age    0.003    0.002
 18–34 25.2 (1759) 13.8 (232)   8.3 (145) 5.5 (87)  
 35–44 29.7 (3028) 14.8 (425)   8.3 (267) 6.6 (158)  
 45–54 25.8 (2816) 12.6 (378)   8.7 (268) 3.9 (110  
 55–64 19.3 (2498) 9.7 (269)   6.2 (193) 3.5 (76)  
Sex    0.947    0.783
 Female 52.4 (5164) 13 (663)   8.2 (442) 4.8 (221)  
 Male 47.6 (4937) 13 (641)   7.8 (431) 5.2 (210)  
Nationality    0.437    0.709
 French 96.1 (9703) 13.1 (1263)   8.1 (842) 5.1 (421)  
 Not french 3.9 (348) 11.3 (37)   7.3 (28) 4 (9)  
Social Class    0.965    0.234
 Upper class 32.7 (5541) 13 (718)   8.8 (500) 4.3 (218)  
 Upper middle class 20.9 (2397) 12.9 (303)   8.5 (205) 4.4 (98)  
 Lower middle class 18.1 (894) 13.4 (114)   8 (72) 5.4 (42)  
 Working class 21.8 (838) 12.4 (108)   6.9 (66) 5.5 (42)  
 Health professional 6.5 (431) 13.9 (61)   6.2 (30) 7.7 (31)  
Professional status    0.018    0.002
 Unemployed at the time of lockdown’s onset 24.5 (2178) 10.6 (241)   7.2 (177) 3.5 (64)  
 Employed and stopped working since COVID 18.0 (1185) 15.7 (181)   10.3 (116) 5.4 (65)  
 Full time teleworking 38.8 (5469) 12.9 (719)   8.1 (492) 4.7 (227)  
 in-person professional activities 18.7 (1269) 13.7 (163)   6.6 (88) 7.1 (75)  
Overcrowding    0.077    0.183
 less or equal than one pers./room 94.4 (9557) 12.8 (1210)   7.9 (816) 4.9 (394)  
 more than one pers./room 5.6 (544) 16.3 (94)   9.5 (57) 6.7 (37)  
Financial resources    0.046    0.077
 At ease 29.5 (4082) 12.8 (493)   8.3 (346) 4.5 (147)  
 No particular problem 46.5 (4369) 12.1 (563)   7.5 (382) 4.5 (181)  
 Difficult 24.1 (1581) 15.2 (238)   8.7 (138) 6.6 (100)  
Region    0.02    0.006
 Ile-de-France 38.7 (5195) 14.4 (714)   8.9 (482) 5.5 (232)  
 Grand Est 30.6 (2854) 13.4 (368)   9.1 (257) 4.3 (111)  
 Hauts-de-France 30.7 (2052) 10.9 (222)   5.8 (134) 5.1 (88)  
Agglomeration size    0.21    0.268
 Rural area 6.9 (488) 15.2 (67)   10.1 (47) 5.1 (20)  
  < 50,000 4.3 (335) 12 (44)   7.3 (30) 4.7 (14)  
 50–200,000 8.2 (536) 11.6 (67)   7.5 (49) 4.1 (18)  
 200–500,000 17.1 (1972) 10.9 (229)   7.6 (157) 3.3 (72)  
 500,000–1,000,000 24.8 (1564) 12.2 (180)   6.5 (106) 5.6 (74)  
  > 1,000,000 38.8 (5200) 14.4 (715)   8.9 (482) 5.5 (233)  
Chronic disease    <0.0001    <0.0001
 None 77.7 (7923) 12.9 (1001)   7.8 (664) 5 (337)  
 Hypertension 4.7 (455) 10.2 (54)   4.7 (33) 5.5 (21)  
 Asthma or other respiratory diseases 2.6 (246) 28.8 (61)   19.2 (44) 9.6 (17)  
 Diabetes, cancer, heart disease, heart disease, immune diseases, liver, kidney, immunity, 2.4 (257) 12.6 (34)   10 (24) 2.6 (10)  
 Others 12.7 (1220) 11.8 (154)   7.5 (108) 4.3 (46)  
Active smoking    0.807    0.856
 Yes, daily 11.7 (819) 12.9 (93)   7.3 (57) 5.6 (36)  
 Yes, sometimes (less than once a day) 4.6 (348) 11.3 (43)   6.2 (26) 5.1 (17)  
 No 83.8 (8727) 13.1 (1136)   8.1 (770) 4.9 (366)  
Obesity    0.811    0.448
 BMI < 30 85.9 (8889) 12.9 (1133)   7.8 (758) 5.1 (375)  
 BMI ≥ 30 14.1 (868) 13.3 (124)   9.1 (84) 4.1 (40)  
Individual preventive measures (mask, gel, social distancing) during outings in the last 7 days.    <0.0001    <0.0001
 All 3 27 (2797) 16.2 (413)   9.7 (277) 6.5 (136)  
 At least one 63 (6355) 11.3 (750)   7 (497) 4.4 (253)  
 None 10 (949) 14.7 (141)   10 (99) 4.6 (42)  
All 100 (10,101) 13.0 (1304)   8.0 (873) 5.0 (431)  
  1. *Chi2 test likely infection /no infection
  2. **Chi2 test between no infection/prior/during the lockdown