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Table 2 Univariate association between circumcision, other risk factors, and STI presence

From: A comparison of the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among circumcised and uncircumcised adult males in Rustenburg, South Africa: a cross-sectional study

Factor Levels STI Presence Crude RR (95% CI) P-value
Present (n = 93) Absent (n = 246)
Circumcision No 75 (33.6%) 148 (66.4%) 1 (reference)  
Medically circumcised 14 (17.7%) 65 (82.3%) 0.527 (0.317–0.877) 0.014
Traditionally circumcised 4 (10.8%) 33 (89.2%) 0.321 (0.125–0.826) 0.018
Employment Unemployed 35 (21.1%) 131 (78.9%) 1 (reference)  
Self employed 8 (34.8%) 15 (65.2%) 1.650 (0.877–3.105) 0.121
Student 5 (19.2%) 21 (80.8%) 0.912 (0.393–2.115) 0.830
Employed 44 (36.1%) 78 (63.9%) 1.711 (1.173–2.495) 0.005
Other 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) 2.371 (0.575–9.780) 0.232
Does your partner live with you? No 66 (25.5%) 193 (74.5%) 1 (reference)  
Yes 20 (36.4%) 35 (63.6%) 1.824 (0.451–7.376) 0.399
Not applicable/no partner 7 (28.0%) 18 (72.0%) 1.099 (0.567–2.131) 0.780
During the last month, on average, how often have you had a drink Containing alcohol? none 23 (25%) 69 (75%) 1(reference)  
1–3 times 39 (27.5%) 103 (72.5%) 1.099 (0.705–1.712) 0.678
Weekly 27 (28.4%) 68 (71.6%) 1.137 (0.706–1.831) 0.598
Daily 4 (40%) 6 (60%) 1.6 (0.692–3.697) 0.271
During the last month, how often were you drunk/drinking alcohol before sex? never 128 (27.7%) 49 (72.3%) 1 (reference)  
sometimes 91 (28.3%) 36 (71.7%) 1.024 (0.711–1.475) 0.899
frequently 18 (18.2%) 4 (81.8%) 0.657 (0.262–1.644) 0.369
always 9 (30.8%) 4 (69.2%) 1.111 (0.475–2.599) 0.807
Frequency of use of condom with female partner(s) Never 18 (38.3%) 29 (61.7%) 1 (reference)  
Sometimes 43 (32.6%) 89 (67.4%) 0.851 (0.549–1.318) 0.469
Frequently 16 (22.2%) 56 (77.8%) 0.580 (0.330–1.020) 0.059
Always 13 (15.3%) 72 (84.7%) 0.399 (0.215–0.741) 0.004
Enrolment Age in years: median (IQR) 26 (23–30) 25 (22–28) 1.021 (0.993–1.050) 0.144
Age group 20–23 39 (25.5%) 114 (74.5%) 1 (reference)  
24–29 27 (24.8%) 82 (75.2%) 0.972 (0.635–1.486) 0.895
30–34 16 (40%) 24 (60%) 1.569 (0.984–2.501) 0.058
35–39 7 (26.9%) 19 (73.1%) 1.056 (0.530–2.103) 0.876
> = 40 4 (36.4%) 7 (63.6%) 1.427 (0.624–3.263) 0.400
Age of sexual debut, in years: median (IQR) 17 (16–18) 17 (15–18) 0.983 (0.933–1.035) 0.514
Years of schooling: median (IQR) 12 (11–13) 12 (11–14) 1.069 (0.974–1.173) 0.157