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Table 2 Prevalence of Suboptimal Sleep, Rates of Assessment and Receipt of and Desire for Sleep Treatment

From: Self-reported suboptimal sleep and receipt of sleep assessment and treatment among persons with and without a mental health condition in Australia: a cross sectional study

  Persons with a mental health condition Persons without a mental health condition Total  
Number (%) Number (%) Number (%)
Sleep duration (on weekdays/workdays)1 X2 [1] = 31.1***
 Appropriate 62 (34) 418 (39) 480 (39)  
 May be appropriate 50 (27) 430 (41) 480 (39)  
 Suboptimal 71 (39) 213 (20) 284 (23)  
  Inadequate 55 (78) 175 (82) 230 (81)  
  Excessive 16 (23) 38 (18) 54 (19)  
Sleep duration (on weekends/non-work days)1 X2 [1] = 37.0***
 Appropriate 60 (33) 515 (49) 575 (46)  
 May be appropriate 56 (31) 368 (35) 424 (34)  
 Suboptimal 66 (36) 179 (17) 245 (19)  
  Inadequate 48 (73) 127 (71) 175 (71)  
  Excessive 18 (27) 52 (29) 70 (29)  
Sleep onset latency2 X2 [1] = 32.4***
 Appropriate 118 (66) 874 (82) 992 (80)  
 May be appropriate 11 (6) 67 (6) 78 (6)  
 Suboptimal 50 (28) 127 (12) 177 (14)  
Awakenings (>  5 min) per night3 X2 [1] = 19.0***
 Appropriate 90 (50) 719 (67) 809 (65)  
 May be appropriate 59 (32) 268 (25) 327 (26)  
 Suboptimal 33 (18) 85 (8) 118 (9)  
Wake after sleep onset1 X2 [1] = 13.1***
 Appropriate 130 (72) 894 (84) 1024 (82)  
 May be appropriate 29 (16) 108 (10) 134 (11)  
 Suboptimal 22 (12) 64 (6) 86 (7)  
Sleep efficiency&,4 X2 [1] = 9.0**
 Appropriate 119 (71) 845 (84) 964 (76)  
 May be appropriate 27 (16) 114 (11) 141 (11)  
 Suboptimal 21 (13) 53 (5) 74 (6)  
Nap frequency (days/week)5  
 Appropriate 13 (7) 55 (5) 68 (5)  
 May be appropriate 171 (93) 1021 (95) 1192 (95)  
 Suboptimal N/A N/A N/A  
Number of naps per day6 X2 [1] = 0.1
 Appropriate 13 (7) 55 (5) 68 (5)  
 May be appropriate 170 (92) 1011 (94) 1181 (94)  
 Suboptimal 1 (1) 8 (1) 9 (1)  
Nap duration7 X2 [1] = 17.2***
 Appropriate N/A N/A N/A  
 May be appropriate 166 (90) 1035 (97) 1201 (96)  
 Suboptimal 18 (10) 34 (3) 52 (4)  
In the past 12-months, have you been asked about the duration and/or quality of your sleep from a health care clinician or service? X2 [1] = 77.3***
 Yes   70 (38) 133 (12) 203 (16)  
 No   30 (16) 157 (15) 187 (15)  
 Nil contact with a health care clinician or service in the past 12-months   84 (46) 789 (73) 873 (69)  
 Unsure/no response   0 (0) 2 (0) 2 (0)  
In the past 12-months, have you received any intervention or recommendations to improve the duration and/or quality of your sleep from a health care clinician or service? X2 [1] = 93.5***
 No 44 (24) 217 (20) 261 (21)  
 Yes 56 (30) 75 (7) 131 (10)  
  Sleep medication recommended or prescribed# 32 (57) 21 (28) 56 (43)  
  Sleep aids such as CPAP machine or nasal strips recommended or prescribed# 10 (18) 22 (29) 32 (24)  
  Sleep hygiene education# 10 (18) 12(16) 22 (17)  
  Psychosocial support such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)# 5 (9) 4(5) 9 (7)  
  Other support (referral to specialist service, medication advice, etc.)# 16 (29) 23 (31) 39 (30)  
 Nil contact with a health care clinician or service in the past 12-months 84 (46) 789 (73) 873 (69)  
“I would like to receive support to improve the duration and/or quality of my sleep from a health care clinician or service.” X2 [1] = 42.6***
 Strongly agree 27 (15) 41 (4) 68 (6)  
 Agree 40 (22) 132 (12) 172 (14)  
 Neither agree nor disagree 29 (16) 136 (13) 165 (13)  
 Disagree 63 (34) 525 (49) 588 (47)  
 Strongly disagree 22 (12) 232 (22) 254 (20)  
 Unsure/no response 3 (2) 15 (1) 18 (1)  
  1. 1Missing: n = 21; 2Missing: n = 18; 3Missing: n = 11;4Missing: n = 86; 5Missing: n = 5;6Missing: n = 7; 7Missing: n = 12; &Sleep efficiency on weekdays; #Multiple responses permitted; N/A: not applicable
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001