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Table 5 Identified research gaps by subject theme

From: Take-home naloxone programs for suspected opioid overdose in community settings: a scoping umbrella review

Subject themes

Research Gaps


Updated comprehensive best practice guidelines for community management opioid overdose that would be applicable across jurisdictions [59]

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

Optimal dosing and administration of naloxone given differing contexts and training

Provision, feasibility and acceptability of naloxone distribution

Jurisdiction-specific strategies related to distribution, feasibility, and acceptability, including distribution locations and eligibility

Overdose response after naloxone administration

Overdose response following naloxone administration, including identifying situations in need of emergency services, follow-up after overdose, and provision of resources and services for individuals who have overdosed.

Naloxone training and education

Training parameters and strategies, including identifying minimum training requirements and optimal learning strategies given the context and population

Recommendations for policy, practice, and gaps in knowledge

Recommendations for policy and practice related to naloxone use and distribution, including naloxone scheduling, pricing, and access

Specific operational aspects and optimization of THN programs

Naloxone safety (harm and adverse events related to naloxone administration)

Adverse events and harms related to naloxone administration, including risk of withdrawal and other adverse outcomes, and effectiveness of


Cost-effectiveness of naloxone or naloxone distribution, including evaluating strategies for targeted vs general distribution