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Table 3 Individual-, social-, and structural-level barriers to ART (N = 512)

From: Stopping, starting, and sustaining HIV antiretroviral therapy: a mixed-methods exploration among African American/Black and Latino long-term survivors of HIV in an urban context

  Mean (SD) or %
Individual-level factors
 ACES-R score (range 0–14) 4.4 (4.2)
 Motivation to start taking ART or significantly increase how often you take ART (range 0–10) 6.0 (3.3)
 Motivation to attend HIV medical care appointments on recommended schedule, (range 0–10) 6. 9 (3.1)
Substance use
 Alcohol use at a moderate-to-high-risk level 45.5
 Cannabis use at a moderate-to-high-risk level 62.7
 Use of other drugs at a moderate-to-high-risk level 69.9
 Never injected drugs 78.5
 Injection drug use lifetime, but not in the past 3 months 12.7
 Injection drug use in the past 3 months 8.8
 Participated in substance use treatment in the past 72.3
Social-level factors
 Current social support (range 13–65) 35.9 (14.8)
 Number of people known living with HIV, Median [Q1, Q3] 20.0 [10.0, 75.0]
 HIV medication stigma (range 3–9) 5.4 (2.2)
 HIV care stigma (range 3–9) 4.9 (2.1)
Structural-level factors
 Ever homeless 89.5
 Perceived structural barriers to HIV care (range 0–10) 1.4 (2.2)
Outcome variables
 Times started ART in the past, range 0–300 times, Median [Q1, Q3] 5 [3, 10]
 Longest duration of sustained ART, in months, range 0–297 months, Median [Q1, Q3] 18 [6, 36]