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Table 5 Any IPV as Risk Factor for Care Utilization, Heterogeneity by Survey Year

From: Intimate partner violence and maternal health services utilization: evidence from 36 National Household Surveys

Variables Any ANC visit 4+ ANC visits Total ANC visits Facility delivery Postnatal visit
OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value Coefficient estimate 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Survey years 2005–2009; Model 3
 Any IPV 0.95 0.91,0.98 0.004 0.88 0.84,0.94 0.000 −0.16 − 0.19,-0.13 0.001 0.93 0.91,0.96 0.000 0.98 0.95,1.01 0.227
 Observations 29,415 29,931 29,931 27,268 29,931
Survey years 2010–2014; Model 3
 Any IPV 0.99 0.87,1.12 0.829 0.91 0.86,0.96 0.001 −0.05 −0.11,0.02 0.183 0.96 0.90,1.02 0.192 0.98 0.93,1.03 0.357
 Observations 93,555 95,178 95,185 94,124 94,519
Survey years 2015–2016; Model 3
 Any IPV 0.92 0.87,0.97 0.002 0.90 0.78,1.03 0.129 −0.09 −0.21,0.02 0.091 0.95 0.86,1.05 0.331 0.97 0.91,1.04 0.389
 Observations 40,446 40,935 41,569 41,558 41,564
  1. Notes: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ANC antenatal care. “Any IPV” is any physical or sexual violence by partner in lifetime. “Postnatal visit” is postnatal visit for mother or newborn within 3 days. All regressions estimate Model 3, controlling for dichotomous variables for each country, subnational region, dichotomous variables for the respondent’s age in years, dichotomous variables for the respondent completing primary, secondary or tertiary education, a dichotomous variable for current marital status, total number of children born, dichotomous variables for wealth quintile, and a dichotomous variable for urban residence