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Table 4 Emotional, Physical, and Sexual Violence as Risk Factors for Care Utilization

From: Intimate partner violence and maternal health services utilization: evidence from 36 National Household Surveys

Variables Any ANC visit 4+ ANC visits Total ANC visits Facility delivery Postnatal visit
OR 95%
CI
p-value OR 95%
CI
p-value Coefficient estimate 95%
CI
p-value OR 95%
CI
p-value OR 95%
CI
p-value
Model 1 (unadjusted)
 Emotional violence 1.12 1.00,1.26 0.050 1.09 0.92,1.28 0.325 0.12 −0.14,0.38 0.342 1.13 0.92,1.39 0.239 1.03 0.88,1.20 0.713
 Physical violence 0.72 0.44,1.16 0.172 0.69 0.49,0.96 0.027 −0.65 −1.28,-0.03 0.042 0.80 0.61,1.06 0.119 0.77 0.63,0.95 0.014
 Sexual violence 1.03 0.82,1.28 0.826 0.84 0.65,1.09 0.187 −0.52 −1.02,-0.01 0.046 0.87 0.72,1.05 0.152 0.77 0.61,0.95 0.016
 Observations 166,685 166,685 166,685 166,685 166,685
Model 2 (adjusted for country of residence)
 Emotional violence 1.13 0.96,1.33 0.149 0.99 0.92,1.06 0.719 0.02 −0.06,0.09 0.661 1.06 0.97,1.15 0.192 1.04 0.98,1.10 0.213
 Physical violence 0.84 0.68,1.03 0.093 0.81 0.69,0.94 0.005 −0.24 − 0.57,0.09 0.149 0.79 0.68,0.92 0.002 0.89 0.74,1.07 0.218
 Sexual violence 0.86 0.79,0.95 0.003 0.86 0.78,0.95 0.003 −0.33 −0.57,-0.09 0.008 0.82 0.76,0.89 0.000 0.84 0.79,0.90 0.000
 Observations 166,685 166,685 166,685 164,022 166,685
Model 3 (adjusted for country of residence, subnational region of residence, and sociodemographic characteristics)
 Emotional violence 1.00 0.93,1.07 0.963 0.96 0.91,1.01 0.111 0.00 −0.04,0.04 0.926 1.04 0.98,1.10 0.162 1.01 0.96,1.06 0.628
 Physical violence 0.92 0.89,0.96 0.000 0.89 0.85,0.94 0.000 −0.10 −0.19,-0.02 0.018 0.91 0.86,0.95 0.000 0.96 0.90,1.02 0.179
 Sexual violence 1.03 0.92,1.15 0.625 0.98 0.92,1.04 0.498 −0.05 −0.13,0.03 0.185 0.99 0.92,1.07 0.863 0.99 0.90,1.08 0.815
 Observations 163,453 166,060 166,685 163,014 166,039
  1. Notes: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ANC antenatal care. “Emotional violence” is a dichotomous variable for emotional violence by partner in lifetime. “Physical violence” is a dichotomous variable for physical by partner in lifetime. “Sexual violence” is a dichotomous variable for sexual violence by partner in lifetime. “Postnatal visit” is postnatal visit for mother or newborn within 3 days. All Models use heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors clustered at the country level. Model 1 does not include any controls. Model 2 controls for dichotomous variables for each country. Model 3 controls for dichotomous variables for each country, subnational region, dichotomous variables for the respondent’s age in years, dichotomous variables for the respondent completing primary, secondary or tertiary education, a dichotomous variable for current marital status, total number of children born, dichotomous variables for wealth quintile, and a dichotomous variable for urban residence