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Table 3 Any IPV as Risk Factor for Care Utilization

From: Intimate partner violence and maternal health services utilization: evidence from 36 National Household Surveys

Variables Any ANC visit 4+ ANC visits Total ANC visits Facility delivery Postnatal visit
OR 95%
CI
p-value OR 95%
CI
p-value Coefficient estimate 95%
CI
p-value OR 95%
CI
p-value OR 95%
CI
p-value
Model 1 (unadjusted)
 Any IPV 0.85 0.58,1.25 0.406 0.76 0.59,0.97 0.026 − 0.56 −0.98,-0.14 0.011 0.87 0.73,1.04 0.125 0.77 0.65,0.91 0.002
 Observations 166,685 166,685 166,685 166,685 166,685
Model 2 (adjusted for country of residence)
 Any IPV 0.91 0.68,1.22 0.523 0.80 0.67,0.96 0.018 − 0.27 − 0.58,0.04 0.088 0.82 0.68,0.98 0.030 0.89 0.73,1.07 0.222
 Observations 166,685 166,685 166,685 164,022 166,685
Model 3 (adjusted for country of residence, subnational region of residence, and sociodemographic characteristics)
 Any IPV 0.96 0.89,1.04 0.329 0.89 0.85,0.94 0.000 −0.09 −0.15,-0.02 0.009 0.95 0.90,1.00 0.030 0.97 0.94,1.01 0.176
 Observations 163,453 166,060 166,685 163,014 166,039
  1. Notes: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ANC antenatal care. “Any IPV” is any physical or sexual violence by partner in lifetime. “Postnatal visit” is postnatal visit for mother or newborn within 3 days. All Models use heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors clustered at the country level. Model 1 does not include any controls. Model 2 controls for dichotomous variables for each country. Model 3 controls for dichotomous variables for each country, subnational region, dichotomous variables for the respondent’s age in years, dichotomous variables for the respondent completing primary, secondary or tertiary education, a dichotomous variable for current marital status, total number of children born, dichotomous variables for wealth quintile, and a dichotomous variable for urban residence