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Table 2 Comparison of PAF across countries based on similar PAF approach in both sexes

From: Burden of cancers attributable to modifiable risk factors in Malaysia

Risk Factors Malaysia, current study France, 2000 [25] China, 2005 [26] Japan, 2005 [15] Canada,2013 [27] Australia, 2013 [16] UK, 2015 [13, 28] Vietnam, 2018 [29]
Excess weight 7.0% 1.6% 0.32% 1.1% 4.6% 4.3% 6.3% 0.8%
Alcohol intake 0.6% 6.9% 4.4% 6.3% 3.5% 2.8% 3.3% 6.0%
Physical Inactivity 1.0% 1.6% 0.27% 0.4% 4.1% 1.5% 0.5%
Tobacco smoking 14.3% 23.9% 22.6% 19.5% 17.9% 13.3% 15.1% 13.5%
Overall PAF (include all other risk factors) 22.2% 35.0%a 57%b 42.7%c 27.7% 32.8%d 37.7e 47.0%f
  1. aOther PAFs include: Infectious agents (3.6%), occupation (2.4%), exogenous hormones (0.9%), ultraviolet light (0.7%), pollutants (0.2%)
  2. bOther PAFs include: Infectious agents (29.4%), low fruit intake (13.0%), low vegetable intake (3.6%), occupational agents (2.7%), environmental agents (0.68%), reproductive factors (0.17%) and hormone replacement therapy (0.01%)
  3. cOther PAFs include: Passive smoking (0.6%), infectious agents (20.6%), salt intake (1.6%), fruit intake (0.7%), vegetable intake (0.6%), exogenous hormones used (0.2%)
  4. dOther PAFs include: Dietary factors (5.4%), infections (3.3%), solar UV radiation (6.4%), reproductive factors (0.8%)
  5. eOther PAFs include: UV radiation (3.8%), occupation (3.8%), infections (3.6%), insufficient fibre (3.3%), ionising radiation (1.9%), processed meat (1.5%), air pollution (1.0%), not breastfeeding (0.5%), postmenopausal hormones (0.4%), oral contraceptives (0.2%)
  6. fOther PAFs include: Passive smoking (6.0%), infectious agents (29.1%), low vegetable and fruit intake (0.4%), air pollution (1.5%), nulliparity (0.8%)