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Table 2 Bivariate associations of background characteristics with triple burden of malnutrition among mother-child pairs in India

From: Prevalence and factors associated with triple burden of malnutrition among mother-child pairs in India: a study based on National Family Health Survey 2015–16

Variables Triple Burden of Malnutrition (%) Chi-square value (p-value)
Mother level factors
Age of the mother (in years)
  15–24 3.87 278.48 (0.0001)
  25–34 6.26
   > =35 8.50
Age at first birth (in years)
   < =19 4.71 101.82 (0.0001)
  20–29 6.10
   > =30 9.26
Educational level
  No education 3.88 150.17 (0.0001)
  Primary 4.91
  Secondary 6.43
  Higher 7.97
Currently breastfeeding
  No 6.15 12.90 (0.0001)
  Yes 5.02
C-section delivery
  No 4.76 616.19 (0.0001)
  Yes 9.79
Child level factors
Child’s age (in months)
   < =12 4.23 54.72 (0.0001)
  13–23 5.14
  24–35 5.60
  36–47 6.68
  48–59 6.01
Sex of the child
  Male 5.81 9.70 (0.0020)
  Female 5.50
Received Vitamin A
  No 4.93 35.60 (0.0001)
  Yes 5.98
Birth size
  Average 5.57 7.23 (0.0270)
  Larger than average 5.96
  Smaller than average 5.72
Household level factors
Wealth index
  Poor 3.04 1000 (0.0001)
  Middle 6.60
  Rich 8.55
Caste
  Scheduled Caste 5.34 292.21 (0.0001)
  Scheduled Tribe 2.88
  Other Backward Class 5.83
  Others 6.82
Religion
  Hindu 5.17 329.61 (0.0001)
  Muslim 7.80
  Others 6.82
Place of residence
  Urban 9.01 803.37 (0.0001)
  Rural 4.30
Region
  North 5.83 687.55 (0.0001)
  Central 5.02
  East 3.63
  Northeast 3.29
  West 7.33
  South 8.59
  1. C-section delivery Cesarean section delivery