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Table 2 Participants and roles and responsibilities, 2018 full-scale exercise in Vietnam

From: Testing early warning and response systems through a full-scale exercise in Vietnam

Participants Roles and responsibilities
Players Players are personnel who have an active role in discussing or performing their regular roles and responsibilities involved during the exercise. Players discuss or initiate actions in response to the simulated scenario (e.g., doctors, nurses, laboratory staff).
Controllers Controllers plan and manage exercise play, set up and operate the exercise site and act in the roles of organizations or individuals who are not playing in the exercise. Controllers direct the pace of the exercise, provide key data to Players and may prompt or initiate certain Players’ actions to ensure exercise continuity. In addition, they issue material to Players as required, monitor the exercise timeline and supervise the safety of all exercise participants. There were 3 types of controllers: exercise director, exercise lead controller (control cell) and venue controller.
Evaluators Evaluators observe exercise events and provide feedback on designated functional areas. Evaluators document performance against established capability targets and critical tasks. Ten evaluators participated in the full-scale exercise.
Venue Points of Contact Venue Points of Contact are trusted agents at participating organizations who are aware of the exercise and can assist the Venue Controllers. These individuals are trusted within the organization and can be relied upon to provide official verification that the exercise is authorized, and that the participants should cooperate with the Venue Controller.
Actors Actors simulate specific roles during exercise play, typically victims or other bystanders. Actors simulated patients, family members and contacts during exercise play (e.g., businessman, his wife, driver and household employee as described in the exercise scenario).
Observers Observers visit or view selected segments of the exercise. Observers do not perform in the exercise, nor do they perform any control or evaluation functions. Observers view the exercise from a designated observation area and must remain within the observation area during the exercise.
Media Personnel Some media personnel may be present as observers, pending approval by the sponsor organization and the Exercise Planning Team.