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Table 2 Summary of relationship between main and cross-cutting themesa

From: Knowledge and experience of cancer prevention and screening among Gypsies, Roma and Travellers: a participatory qualitative study

Cross-cutting themes Main themes
Beliefs about cancer Risk reduction in daily life Participation in screening
Ethnic identity Aware of traditional views
Mistrust of health promotion messages
Aware of ‘healthy lifestyle’ messages
Activities with children and animals
Belief that community uptake is low
Screening outside NHS (e.g. abroad (Roma only) or via private medical services in UK (Showpeople only))
Gender roles Men are stoical about illness
Men and women do not discuss private health matters
Women provide meals
Women and men’s exercise is highly gendered
Women likely to attend screening
Men unlikely to attend
Fatalism Traditional cancer fatalism Doubt whether prevention is possible Men likely to await symptoms
Fear of being shamed Tradition that cancer is taboo Low health literacy Exposure of body contravenes privacy (Gypsy/Travellers only)
Social and economic factors Low literacy levels
Language barriers (Roma only)
Expectation of early morbidity
Awareness of risk in work and living conditions
Lack of familiarity with UK screening system (Roma only)
  1. aThemes apply to all ethnic minority subgroups unless specified