Skip to main content

Table 5 Torturing Environment Blocks by security forces involved in detention (n = 158)

From: Beyond torture checklists: an exploratory study of the reliability and construct validity of the Torturing Environment Scale (TES)

Blocks median (IQR) Civil Guard National Police Ertzaintza Test statistic Epsilon-squared estimate
Context Manipulation 8 (5–10)a 6 (4–8)a 7 (5–9) 7.994* 0.051
Threats-Fear 8 (5–10) a, b 6 (5–8) a 5 (3–8) b 9.789** 0.062
Pain 8 (6–12) a 6 (4–8) 4 (2–6) a 10.797** 0.069
Extreme Pain 0 (0–3) a, b 0 (0–0) a 0 (0–0) b 13.676** 0.087
Sexual integrity 2 (0–8) 0 (0–4) 0 (0–4) 5.518 0.035
Need to belong 4 (4–6) 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) 1.081 0.007
Identity, Meaning 4 (3–7) 5 (3–7) 4 (2–7) 0.703 0.004
Coercive Interrogation 10 (6–12) 10 (6–12) 10 (8–12) 1.820 0.012
PPT-Manipulation 5 (3.5–6) a 4 (3–5) a 4.5 (3–5.5) 8.146* 0.052
PPT-Physical 3 (2–4.5) a, b 2.3 (1.8–3) a 15 (0.5–2.25)b 18.743** 0.119
PPT-Psychological 4 (2.9–5.1) 4 (2.6–4.6) 3.9 (2.4–4.4) 2.036 0.013
  1. The superscript letters are the same in those groups between which there are differences. In the Threats-Fear variable, the differences between groups have a p-value at the limit of statistical significance. *p-value< 0.05, **p < 0.01