Skip to main content

Table 1 Torturing Environment Scale. Section 1 - Conceptual Blocks and Items

From: Beyond torture checklists: an exploratory study of the reliability and construct validity of the Torturing Environment Scale (TES)

Section 1 - Torturing Environment
Block 1. Contextual manipulations Attacks on essential body functions that allow staying oriented. 1.Inhuman conditions detention
2. Environmental manipulation
3. Basic physiological functions
4. Sleep dysregulation
5. Handling of time
6. Sensory deprivation
7. Mind-altering methods
Block 2. Fear-producing actions Attacks to the need for security 9. Hopes and expectations
10. Threats to the person
11. Threats against family
12. Lack of information
13. Experiences of near-death
14. Witnessing others torture
15. Phobias
Block 3. Pain-producing actions Attacks to the body - Mild to severe pain, prolonged in time. 17. Beatings
18. Battles against oneself
19. Exhaustion exercises
Block 4. Extreme pain – mutilation - death Attacks to the integrity of the body – Excruciating pain – Permanent Damage - Death 21. Extreme pain
22. Mutilation
23. Brain damage
Block 5 – Sexual Integrity Attacks to identity linked to gender 25. Humiliation
26. Sexual assault
27. Rape
Block 6 – Attachment and need to belong Attacks to identity in relation 29. Solitary confinement
30. Breaking social bonds
31. Manipulation of affect
Block 7 – Actions targeting identity Attacks to self 33. Beliefs and worldviews.
34. Helplessness induced
35. Instilling guilt
36. Induced shame
37. Induced humiliation
38. Violation of moral principles
39. Installing goals and identity
Block 8 – Coercive interrogation Manipulation through dialogue and interrogation 41. Conditions
42. Style of interrogation
43. Deception/manipulation