Skip to main content

Table 3 Comparison between Suicide Attempters and Non-Suicide Attempters Based on Risk and Protective Measures

From: Psychological characteristics of suicide attempters among undergraduate college students in China: a cross-sectional study

Factors Suicide Attempt Total Statistic p-value Cohen’s d
Yes (n = 237) No (n = 1185) (n = 1422)
Risk Measures
 Hopelessness
  • Mean ± SD 55.0 ± 8.4 50.4 ± 9.4 51.1 ± 9.4 7.54 < 0.001a 9.21
  • Median (min, max) 56 (32, 79) 50 (27, 91) 51 (27, 91) 170,489.00 < 0.001b 0.28c
 Psychache
  • Mean ± SD 33.7 ± 12.2 23.7 ± 9.9 25.4 ± 11.0 11.80 < 0.001a 10.31
  • Median (min, max) 32 (13, 65) 22 (13, 65) 23 (13, 65) 203,121.00 < 0.001b 0.60c
 Depression
  • Mean ± SD 8.8 ± 5.3 4.7 ± 4.3 5.4 ± 4.7 11.17 < 0.001a 4.45
  • Median (min, max) 9 (0, 21) 4 (0, 21) 4 (0, 21) 200,905.00 < 0.001b 0.58c
Protective Measures
 Social Support
  • Mean ± SD 56.7 ± 13.2 62.1 ± 11.8 61.2 ± 12.2 5.83 < 0.001a 12.07
  • Median (min, max) 57 (15, 84) 62 (12, 84) 61 (12, 84) 101,720.00 < 0.001b 0.36c
 Self Esteem
  • Mean ± SD 25.4 ± 3.9 27.3 ± 3.7 27.0 ± 3.8 6.87 < 0.001a 3.70
  • Median (min, max) 25 (12, 37) 27 (14, 37) 26 (12, 37) 97,582.00 < 0.001b 0.40c
 Purpose in Life
  • Mean ± SD 18.2 ± 5.1 20.4 ± 4.6 20.0 ± 4.8 6.72 < 0.001a 4.69
  • Median (min, max) 19 (4, 28) 21 (4, 28) 20 (4, 28) 97,632.50 < 0.001b 0.40c
  1. 1. Suicide Attempters group scored significantly higher (p < 0.001) for all three risk factors measurements of hopelessness, psychache, and depression. Size effects using Cohen’s d is small for hopelessness, and large for psychache and depression
  2. 2. For three protective factors tested, Suicide Attempters group scored significantly lower (p < 0.001) for social support, self-esteem and purpose in life. Size effects using Cohen’s d is small for social support and self-esteem, while it has medium size effects for purpose in life
  3. 3. aIndependent samples t-test; bMann-Whitney U test
  4. 4. ccalculation obtained from https://www.psychometrica.de/effect_size.html
  5. Ref: Cohen (1992), .00 to .19 as trivial; values .20 to .49 as small effect, values .50 to .79 as medium effect, and values ≥ .80 as a large effect.