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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of study participants according to bodyweight status. (NHANES 2015–2016 cycle)

From: The association between sleep duration and excess body weight of the American adult population: a cross-sectional study of the national health and nutrition examination survey 2015–2016

  Total (n = 2495) Weight Groupsa Pb
Normal weight
(n = 751)
Overweight (n = 823) Obese (n = 921)
Age (years), M (Q1, Q3)c 44.00(31.00–58.00) 41.00(27.00–54.00) 45.00(31.00–59.00) 44.00(32.00–58.00) < 0.001
Average sleep time (hours), Mean ± SDf 7.74 ± 1.24 7.84 ± 1.15 7.72 ± 1.38 7.57 ± 1.48 < 0.001
Sleep duration groupsg, n (%) < 0.001
 Short-sleep 513(20.56) 110(11.61) 174(19.90) 229(19.36)  
 Normal-sleep 1615(64.73) 526(78.15) 523(66.61) 566(67.86)  
 Long-sleep 367(14.71) 115(10.24) 126(13.49) 126(12.77)  
Sex, n (%)d < 0.001
 Male 1244(49.86) 361(43.25) 474(56.31) 409(48.04)  
 Female 1251(50.14) 390(56.75) 349(43.69) 512(51.96)  
Ethnicity, n (%) < 0.001
 Hispanic 683(27.37) 123(8.14) 257(14.67) 303(16.46)  
 Non-Hispanic White 858(34.39) 283(70.37) 290(68.15) 285(63.35)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 523(20.96) 126(8.34) 146(8.54) 251(13.98)  
 Non-Hispanic Asian 337(13.51) 197(10.65) 102(5.29) 38(2.03)  
 Non-Hispanic Others 94(3.77) 22(2.50) 28(3.35) 44(4.18)  
Marital status, n (%) < 0.001
 Never married 517(20.72) 211(24.96) 141(15.06) 165(14.75)  
 Married/Living with Partner 1578(63.25) 448(66.43) 543(70.67) 587(69.91)  
 Divorced/Separated 281(11.26) 56(5.19) 98(10.61) 127(11.86)  
 Widowed 119(4.77) 36(3.42) 41(3.66) 42(3.48)  
Education level, n (%) < 0.001
 Less than High School 406(16.27) 103(6.81) 144(9.28) 159(9.40)  
 High school 484(19.40) 125(12.62) 166(18.45) 193(20.20)  
 Some college 776(31.10) 206(28.20) 228(28.70) 342(38.72)  
 College graduate or above 829(33.23) 317(52.37) 285(43.58) 227(31.69)  
Total number of people in the family, n (%) 0.003
 1 541(21.68) 193(26.13) 181(22.34) 167(18.19)  
 2–3 982(39.36) 292(42.71) 335(47.98) 355(42.62)  
  ≥ 4 972(38.96) 266(31.17) 307(29.68) 399(39.19)  
Number of children aged ≤ 5 years, n(%) 0.002
 0 1947(78.04) 608(83.83) 660(84.36) 679(76.64)  
 1–2 524(21.00) 140(15.90) 156(15.11) 228(22.22)  
  ≥ 3 24(0.96) 3(0.27) 7(0.53) 14(1.14)  
Number of children aged 6–17 years, n(%) 0.184
 0 1619(64.89) 516(72.58) 537(70.75) 566(67.12)  
 1–2 719(28.82) 199(23.20) 235(25.39) 285(26.83)  
  ≥ 3 157(6.29) 36(4.22) 51(3.86) 70(6.05)  
PIRe, n (%) 0.280
  < 1.56 831(33.31) 227(19.16) 268(19.65) 336(23.43)  
 3.61–4.56 828(33.19) 251(31.89) 277(30.86) 300(28.74)  
  ≥ 4.56- 836(33.51) 273(48.96) 278(49.49) 285(47.83)  
Daytime sleepiness, n (%) 0.016
 Never 456(18.28) 175(16.93) 160(13.19) 121(10.60)  
 1 time a month 605(24.25) 196(27.76) 179(22.32) 230(23.00)  
 2–4 times a month 872(34.95) 237(33.49) 299(39.75) 336(39.64)  
 5–15 times a month 409(16.39) 110(16.62) 140(19.89) 159(19.23)  
 16–30 times a month 153(6.13) 33(5.20) 45(4.85) 75(7.53)  
Trouble sleep, n(%) 0.349
 No 1888(75.67) 596(73.63) 638(73.76) 654(69.89)  
 Yes 607(24.33) 155(26.37) 185(26.24) 267(30.11)  
  1. aWeight groups: normal weight group BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight group BMI 24.9–30 kg/m2, and obese group BMI ≥30 kg/m2
  2. bP value Results from Pearson’s chi-square test, t-test and Fisher’s exact test
  3. cM (Q1, Q3) Median (quartile 1, quartile3)
  4. dN% Frequency and percentage of the total
  5. ePIR Poverty income ratio
  6. fMean ± SD mean ± standard deviation
  7. gSleep duration groups were defined as follow: Short-sleep group < 7 h, Normal-sleep group 7–9 h, Long-sleep group > 9 h