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Table 5 Knowledge, behavioural and health service determinants of HIV among male injecting drug users, Pokhara Valley (Nepal)

From: Trends and determinants of HIV transmission among men who inject drugs in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal: analysis of cross-sectional studies

  OR (95% CI)      
2007 2009 2011 2015 2017 2007–2017
Recent use of unsterilised needles
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.27 (0.11–0.67) 0.63 (0.23–1.68) 0.24 (0.07–0.79) 0.45 (0.24–0.83)
Avoids needle sharing behaviour
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 0.13 (0.04–0.48) 0.38 (0.05–3.03) 0.07 (0.01–0.75) 0.54 (0.20–1.41)
Age at first injection
 Below median 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Above median 0.52 (0.22–1.22) 0.73 (0.25–1.92) 0.23 (0.06–0.83) 4.78 (0.97–23.49) 3.81 (1.21–11.98) 1.06 (0.68–1.66)
Received addiction treatment
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.35 (0.15–0.81) 0.74 (0.27–1.97) 0.47 (0.16–1.40) 0.23 (0.06–0.93) 0.26 (0.10–0.70) 0.39 (0.25–0.61)
HIV test
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 1.36 (0.60–3.09) 1.78 (0.65–4.85) 0.34 (0.07–1.52) 0.35 (0.07–1.74) 0.74 (0.46–1.21)
Condom use (past 12 months)
 Always 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Never 0.46 (0.07–3.12) 0.27 (0.02–3.59) 0.08 (0.01–1.45) 1.35 (0.57–3.20)
Duration of ID use
 Below median 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Above median 5.37 (2.08–13.85) 3.63 (1.30–10.15) 9.92 (2.75–35.75) 14.21 (1.74–115.87) 9.23 (2.07–41.25) 6.94 (3.91–12.31)
Use of FSW (past 12 months)
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 1.09 (0.48–2.45) 2.43 (0.67–8.86) 0.90 (0.31–2.59) 0.51 (0.13–1.96) 0.45 (0.16–1.27) 0.93 (0.58–1.48)
Alcohol use (past 12 months)
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.82 (0.27–2.46) 0.62 (0.18–2.07) 0.60 (0.14–2.51) 0.69 (0.09–5.05) 1.83 (0.37–8.87) 0.80 (0.45–1.41)
Discussed with PE/OE/CM/CE
 Yes 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 1.32 (0.57–3.04) 0.79 (0.17–3.59)   0.20 (0.05–0.77) 0.39 (0.15–1.06) 0.55 (0.32–0.96)
Knowledge of where to get ART
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.27 (0.12–0.62) 0.49 (0.17–1.39) 0.39 (0.14–1.08) 0.02 (0.01–0.16) 0.21 (0.13–0.33)
  1. ID Injection drugs, FSW Female sex worker, PE/OE/CM/CE Peer Educators, Outreach Educators, Community Motivators/Mobilisers, Community Educators, Antiretroviral therapy.
  2. Logistic regression models were run on the combined datasets from 2007 to 2017 with year being adjusted for as a confounder. The models examined socio-demographic factors and whether these acted as determinants of HIV status over the period of 2007–2017. The 2003 and 2005 datasets were excluded from this analysis as the inflated prevalence of HIV in those years would have skewed the results. Some variables presented in Tables 1-3 were excluded from models due to small case numbers and unstable estimates. Models are adjusted for age, education level and marital status
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