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Table 3 Prevalence of HIV based on selected health factors and knowledge among IBBS participants, Pokhara Valley (Nepal)

From: Trends and determinants of HIV transmission among men who inject drugs in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal: analysis of cross-sectional studies

  2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2015 2017
n N % (95% CI) n N % (95% CI) n N % (95% CI) n N % (95% CI) n N % (95% CI) n N % (95% CI) n N % (95% CI)
Received addiction treatment
 Yes 27 91 29.7 (20.5–40.2) 34 132 25.8 (18.5–34.1) 16 115 13.9 (8.2–21.6) 8 120 6.7 (2.9–12.7) 11 179 6.1 (3.1–10.7) 6 111 5.4 (2.0–11.4) 9 83 10.8 (5.1–19.6)
 No 39 209 18.7 (13.6–24.6) 31 168 18.5 (12.9–25.2) 10 185 5.4 (2.6–9.7) 9 180 5.0 (2.3–9.3) 5 166 3.0 (1.0–6.9) 3 234 1.3 (0.3–3.7) 8 262 3.1 (1.3–5.9)
HIV test
 Yes 28 80 35.0 (24.7–46.5) 47 193 24.4 (18.5–31.0) 15 193 7.8 (4.4–12.5) 10 213 4.7 (2.3–8.5) 14 245 5.7 (3.2–9.4) 7 193 3.6 (1.5–7.3) 15 218 6.9 (3.9–11.1)
 No 38 220 17.3 (12.5–22.9) 18 107 16.8 (10.3–25.3) 11 107 10.3 (5.2–17.7) 7 87 8.0 (3.3–15.9) 2 100 2.0 (0.2–7.0) 2 152 1.3 (0.2–4.7) 2 127 1.6 (0.2–5.6)
Condom Use
 Always 5 8 62.5 (24.5–91.5) 7 11 63.6 (30.8–89.1) 2 14 14.3 (1.8–42.8) 1 6 16.7 (0.4–64.1) 2 5 40.0 (5.3–85.3) 1 6 16.7 (0.4–64.1)
 Sometimes 8 32 25.0 (11.5–43.4) 13 40 32.5 (18.6–49.1) 3 43 7.0 (1.5–19.1) 4 51 7.8 (2.2–18.9) 3 51 5.9 (1.2–16.2) 5 31 16.1 (5.5–33.7)
 Never 13 46 28.3 (16.0–43.5) 7 38 18.4 (7.7–34.3) 3 42 7.1 (1.5–19.5) 2 39 5.1 (0.6–17.3) 0 42 0.0 (0.0–8.4) 1 67 1.5 (0.0–8.0)
 Not applicable 40 214 18.7 (13.7–24.6) 38 211 18.0 (13.1–23.9) 18 201 9.0 (5.4–13.8) 10 204 4.9 (2.4–8.8) 11 247 4.5 (2.2–7.8) 2 241 0.8 (0.1–3.0)
Duration of ID use
 Below median 23 196 11.7 (7.6–17.1) 14 176 8.0 (4.4–13.0) 6 175 3.4 (1.3–7.3) 6 194 3.1 (1.1–6.6) 3 232 1.3 (0.3–3.7) 1 216 0.5 (0.0–2.6) 2 183 1.1 (0.1–3.9)
 Above median 43 104 41.3 (31.8–51.4) 51 124 41.1 (32.4–50.3) 20 125 16.0 (10.1–23.6) 11 106 10.4 (5.3–17.8) 13 113 11.5 (6.3–18.9) 8 129 6.2 (2.7–11.9) 15 162 9.3 (5.3–14.8)
Used FSW in past year
 Yes 13 99 13.1 (7.2–21.4) 18 121 14.9 (9.1–22.5) 12 139 8.6 (4.5–14.6) 3 105 2.9 (0.6–8.1) 6 126 4.8 (1.8–10.1) 4 96 4.2 (1.1–10.3) 6 69 8.7 (3.3–18.0)
 No 47 181 26.0 (19.7–33.0) 43 167 25.7 (19.3–33.1) 14 150 9.3 (5.2–15.2) 12 168 7.1 (3.7–12.1) 9 210 4.3 (2.0–8.0) 5 229 2.2 (0.7–5.0) 11 267 4.1 (2.1–7.3)
Drinking Alcohol
 Every day 37 127 29.1 (21.4–37.9) 45 170 26.5 (20.0–33.8) 12 106 11.3 (6.0–18.9) 10 101 9.9 (4.9–17.5) 6 88 6.8 (2.5–14.3) 2 59 3.4 (0.4–11.7) 2 56 3.6 (0.4–12.3)
 Sometimes 21 126 16.7 (10.6–24.3) 12 96 12.5 (6.6–20.8) 9 141 6.4 (3.0–11.8) 3 136 2.2 (0.5–6.3) 7 186 3.8 (1.5–7.6) 5 201 2.5 (0.8–5.7) 7 163 4.3 (1.7–8.6)
 Never 8 47 17.0 (7.6–30.8) 8 26 30.8 (14.3–51.8) 5 53 9.4 (3.1–20.7) 4 63 6.3 (1.8–15.5) 3 68 4.4 (0.9–12.4) 2 85 2.4 (0.3–8.2) 8 126 6.3 (2.8–12.1)
Know anyone with HIV/AIDS
 Yes 46 194 23.7 (17.9–30.3) 56 240 23.3 (18.1–29.2) 24 233 10.3 (6.7–14.9) 17 223 7.6 (4.5–11.9) 13 245 5.3 (2.9–8.9) 8 229 3.5 (1.5–6.8)
 No 19 97 19.6 (12.2–28.9) 5 49 10.2 (3.4–22.2) 2 69 2.9 (0.4–10.1) 0 77 0.0 (0.0–4.7) 3 100 3.0 (0.6–8.5) 1 116 0.9 (0.0–4.7)
 Unsure 2 9 22.2 (2.8–60.0) 4 11 36.4 (10.9–69.2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Discussed with PE/OE/CM/CE
 Yes 16 202 7.9 (4.6–12.5) 15 257 5.8 (3.3–9.4) 16 295 5.4 (3.1–8.7) 5 72 6.9 (2.3–15.5) 8 93 8.6 (3.8–16.2)
 No 10 98 10.2 (5.0–18.0) 2 43 4.7 (0.6–15.8) 0 50 0.0 (0.0–7.1) 4 273 1.5 (0.4–3.7) 9 252 3.6 (1.6–6.7)
Knowledge of ART
 Yes 15 89 16.9 (9.8–26.3) 6 66 9.1 (3.4–18.7) 8 101 7.9 (3.5–15.0) 9 127 7.1 (3.3–13.0) 16 98 16.3 (9.6–25.2)
 No 11 211 5.2 (2.6–9.1) 11 234 4.7 (2.4–8.3) 8 244 3.3 (1.4–6.4) 0 209 0.0 (0.0–1.7) 1 246 0.4 (0.0–2.2)
Total 66 300 22.0 (17.4–27.1) 65 300 21.7 (17.1–26.7) 26 300 8.7 (5.7–12.4) 17 300 5.7 (3.3–8.9) 16 345 11.3 (2.7–7.4) 9 345 2.6 (1.2–4.9) 17 345 4.9 (2.9–7.8)
  1. n Number of HIV cases, N Total number of participants, IBBS Integrated Biological Behavioural Surveys, FSW Female Sex Worker, HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, PE/OE/CM/CE Peer Educators, Outreach Educators, Community Motivators/Mobilisers, Community Educators, ART Antiretroviral therapy
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