Skip to main content

Table 2 Frequency of participants based on demographic variables and results of compare means test

From: An investigation of depression, anxiety, and stress and its relating factors during COVID-19 pandemic in Iran

variable Division (Number) Stress Score Anxiety Score Depression Score
Mean ± SD p-value Mean ± SD p-value Mean ± SD p-value
Gender Male (340) 13.6 ± 4.23 0.008 10.5 ± 3.50 0.458 12.6 ± 4.71 0.871
Female (1158) 14.3 ± 4.20 10.6 ± 3.33 12.7 ± 4.54  
Marital status Single (675) 14.0 ± 4.17 0.256 10.5 ± 3.31 0.117 12.9 ± 4.61 0.065
Married (823) 14.2 ± 4.25 10.7 ± 3.42 12.5 ± 4.51
Education level Diploma and below (339) 14.3 ± 4.27 0.001 10.9 ± 3.57 0.001 13.0 ± 4.80 0.013
Undergraduate (698) 14.4 ± 4.23 10.8 ± 3.42 12.9 ± 4.60
Postgraduate (461) 13.5 ± 4.10 10.1 ± 3.08 12.2 ± 4.32
Urbanity Urban (1368) 14.1 ± 4.19 0.344 10.6 ± 3.33 0.590 12.6 ± 4.53 0.238
Rural (130) 14.5 ± 4.51 10.8 ± 3.70 12.9 ± 4.99
Change in Income during Covid-19 outbreak Without job (464) 14.3 ± 4.36 0.001 10.5 ± 3.29 0.234 12.9 ± 4.85 > 0.001
Decreased (389) 14.6 ± 4.16 10.8 ± 3.45 13.1 ± 4.60
Without change (616) 13.8 ± 4.11 10.6 ± 3.38 12.3 ± 4.35
Increased (29) 12.1 ± 3.89 9.7 ± 3.24 10.1 ± 3.17
Exposure to infected case Yes (296) 14.5 ± 4.17 0.133 10.9 ± 3.53 0.073 13.0 ± 4.61 0.332
No (931) 14.1 ± 4.30 10.5 ± 3.28 12.7 ± 4.65
Exposure to people with Covid-19 symptoms Yes (141) 14.7 ± 4.27 0.157 10.9 ± 3.65 0.219 13.2 ± 4.77 0.268
No (1021) 14.1 ± 4.27 10.5 ± 3.31 12.7 ± 4.62
Having a high-risk family member Yes (897) 14.5 ± 4.23 < 0.001 10.8 ± 3.44 > 0.001 13.0 ± 4.67 < 0.001
No (266) 13.1 ± 4.24 9.8 ± 2.94 11.8 ± 4.41