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Table 3 Multivariable multilevel logistic regression models on individual and contextual factors associated with circumcision among girls aged 0–14 in Chad

From: Factors associated with female genital mutilation among women of reproductive age and girls aged 0–14 in Chad: a mixed-effects multilevel analysis of the 2014–2015 Chad demographic and health survey data

Variables Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI]
Individual level factors
Age
  15–24   Ref   Ref
  25–34   15.30*** [10.26–22.80]   15.29*** [10.25–22.79]
  35 years and above   31.64*** (21.02–47.65]   31.72*** [21.07–47.77]
Mother’s education
  No education   Ref   Ref
  Primary   0.94[0.65–1.35]   0.93[0.65–1.35]
  Secondary/Higher   0.74[0.32–1.71]   0.76[0.32–1.77]
Partner’s education
  No education   Ref   Ref
  Primary   0.91[0.64–1.28]   0.92[0.65–1.29]
  Secondary/Higher   0.39***[0.24–0.62]   0.39***[0.25–0.63]
Marital status
  Married   Ref   Ref
  Cohabiting   0.63[0.36–1.11]   0.63[0.36–1.11]
Employment status
  Not working   0.77*[0.63–0.94]   0.77*[0.63–0.95]
  Working   Ref   Ref
Ethnicity
  Sara   Ref   Ref
  Gorane   1.38[0.49–3.93]   1.41[0.49–4.01]
  Arab   1.90[0.96–3.78]   1.96[0.98–3.92]
  Ouaadai/maba/massalit/mimi   2.51**[1.25–5.06]   2.57**[1.27–5.22]
  Kenemu-Borno   1.35[0.48–3.74]   1.42[0.50–3.98]
  Boulala/medego/kouka   1.67[0.76–3.70]   1.73[0.78–3.84]
  Other   1.97*[1.03–3.78]   2.05*[1.06–3.95]
Religion
  Christianity   0.49*[0.26–0.92]   0.51*[0.26–0.98]
  Islam   Ref   Ref
  Other   0.35[0.10–1.22]   0.36[0.10–1.23]
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine
  Not at all   Ref   Ref
  Less than once a week/at least once a week   0.60[0.23–1.56]   0.62[0.23–1.62]
Frequency of listening to radio
  Not at all   Ref   Ref
  Less than once a week/at least once a week   1.08[0.80–1.45]   1.10[0.82–1.49]
Frequency of watching television
  Not at all   Ref   Ref
  Less than once a week/at least once a week   1.01[0.65–1.57]   1.04[0.67–1.62]
Respondent circumcised
  No   0.01*** [0.005–0.018]   0.01*** [0.005–0.018]
  Yes   Ref   Ref
Wealth quintile
  Poorest   Ref   Ref
  Poorer   0.98[0.74–1.29]   0.97[0.73–1.28]
  Middle   1.11[0.84–1.48]   1.10[0.83–1.47]
  Richer   1.12[0.84–1.52]   1.15[0.85–1.56]
  Richest   0.73[0.49–1.08]   0.97[0.56–1.68]
Contextual factors
  Residence
   Urban    2.17*[1.19–3.93] Ref
   Rural    Ref 0.83[0.51–1.33]
Community literacy level
  Low    Ref Ref
  Medium    0.37***[0.25–0.55] 1.06[0.78–1.45]
  High    0.15***[0.09–0.26] 0.79[0.50–1.25]
Community socio-economic status
  Low    Ref Ref
  Medium    0.50*[0.27–0..91] 0.86[0.55–1.34]
  High    0.75[0.42–1.35] 0.99[0.62–1.58]
Random effect result
  PSU variance (95% CI) 2.78 (2.17–3.56) 0.28 (0.15–0.50) 2.19 (1.70–2.83) 0.27 (0.15–0.50)
  ICC 45.8% 7.8% 40.0% 7.6%
  LR Test χ2 = 584.12, p < 0.001 χ2 = 20.09, p < 0.001 χ2 = 443.51, p < 0.001 χ2 = 19.80, p < 0.001
  Wald χ2 Reference 617.20*** 71.91** 617.82***
  Model fitness
   Log-likelihood − 2287.89 − 1539.47 − 2250.53 −1537.37
   AIC 4579.79 3130.94 4515.06 3136.74
N 6334 6334 6334 6334
  1. Source: 2014–2015 Chad Demographic and Health Survey
  2. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  4. N Sample size, Ref Reference category, PSU Primary Sampling Unit, ICC Intra-Class Correlation, LR Test Likelihood ratio Test, AIC Akaike’s Information Criterion