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Table 2 Multivariable multilevel logistic regression models on individual and contextual factors associated with circumcision among women aged 15–49 in Chad

From: Factors associated with female genital mutilation among women of reproductive age and girls aged 0–14 in Chad: a mixed-effects multilevel analysis of the 2014–2015 Chad demographic and health survey data

Variables Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
   aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI]
Individual level factors
Mother’s education
  No education   Ref   Ref
  Primary   0.79[0.60–1.04]   0.81[0.61–1.07]
  Secondary/Higher   0.44***[0.28–0.68]   0.45***[0.29–0.71]
Partner’s education
  No education   Ref   Ref
  Primary   0.95[0.71–1.29]   0.99[0.73–1.34]
  Secondary/Higher   0.82[0.60–1.13]   0.85[0.62–1.16]
Marital status
  Married   Ref   Ref
  Cohabiting   1.00[0.68–1.48]   1.00[0.68–1.48]
Employment status
 Not working   0.80*[0.64–0.99]   0.79*[0.64–0.99]
 Working   Ref   Ref
Ethnicity
  Sara   Ref   Ref
  Gorane   0.005***[0.002–0.011]   0.005***[0.002–0.010]
  Arab   1.13[0.60–2.12]   1.08[0.58–2.03]
  Ouaadai/maba/massalit/mimi   0.81[0.40–1.62]   0.74[0.37–1.49]
  Kenemu-Borno   0.012***[0.001–0.025]   0.011***[0.005–0.023]
  Boulala/medego/kouka   0.17***[0.08–0.36]   0.17***[0.08–0.36]
  Other   0.13***[0.06–0.17]   0.12***[0.07–0.20]
Religion
  Christianity   0.10***[0.06–0.17]   0.12***[0.07–0.19]
  Islam   Ref   Ref
  Other   0.09***[0.03–0.21]   0.10***[0.04–0.24]
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine
  Not at all   Ref   Ref
  Less than once a week/at least once a week   0.98[0.61–1.58]   0.95[0.59–1.54]
Frequency of listening to radio
  Not at all   Ref   Ref
  Less than once a week/at least once a week   0.95[0.72–1.25]   0.98[0.74–1.29]
Frequency of watching television
  Not at all   Ref   Ref
  Less than once a week/at least once a week   1.28[0.88–1.84]   1.34[0.93–1.94]
Wealth quintile
  Poorest   Ref   Ref
  Poorer   0.75[0.56–1.02]   0.75[0.56–1.02]
  Middle   0.73[0.53–1.01]   0.73[0.53–1.01]
  Richer   0.67*[0.47–0.94]   0.68*[0.48–0.96]
  Richest   0.65[0.40–1.05]   0.88[0.51–1.52]
Contextual factors
Community literacy level
  Low    Ref Ref
  Medium    0.25***[0.12–0.54] 0.42**[0.22–0.80]
  High    0.09***[0.04–0.19] 0.27**[0.13–0.54]
Community socio-economic status
  Low    Ref Ref
  Medium    0.83[0.21–3.33] 0.86[0.55–1.34]
  High    1.26[0.60–2.65] 0.97[0.48–1.94]
Random effect result
  PSU variance (95% CI) 19.6 (15.0–25.5) 8.1 (6.5–10.1) 18.4 (14.2–23.7) 7.99 (6.41–9.95)
  ICC 85.6% 71.2% 84.8% 70.8%
  LR Test χ2 = 3915.41, p < 0.001 χ2 = 1815.97, p < 0.001 χ2 = 3742.84, p < 0.001 χ2 = 1801.56, p < 0.001
  Wald χ2 Reference 491.58*** 46.41** 509.50***
  Model fitness
   Log-likelihood − 2432.46 − 2149.31 − 2420.83 − 2141.16
   AIC 4868.93 4344.62 4853.66 4336.32
N 6334 6334 6334 6334
  1. Source: 2014–2015 Chad Demographic and Health Survey
  2. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  4. N Sample size, Ref Reference category, PSU Primary Sampling Unit; ICC Intra-Class Correlation, LR Test Likelihood ratio Test, AIC Akaike’s Information Criterion