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Table 3 Lifestyle data at baseline and after four and ten months in the Somali and Swedish target groups (TG) with baseline serum hydroxyvitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L

From: Positive impact on vitamin D related lifestyle of medical advice in pregnant Somali-born women and new mothers: a mixed method study in Swedish primary care

  Somali TG Swedish TG
  Baseline 4 months p 10 months p Baseline 4 months p 10 months p
n1 50 43   45   39 30   23  
Milk, dl/day, m (Std) 1.8 (2.0) 3.0 (2.0) 0.001 2.6 (2.1) 0.066 3.1 (1.9) 3.4 (1.9) 0.497 3.5 (3.8) 0.972
Cheese/w, md (IQR)2 2.4 (2.5) 3.7 (2.3) 0.006 3.8 (2.4) 0.009 4.2 (2.0) 4.3 (1.7) 0.129 4.2 (2.1) 0.415
Fish/w, md (IQR)3 0.7 (1.0) 1.3 (1.1) 0.027 1.2 (1.0) 0.095 0.8 (0.6) 0.9 (0.6) 0.317 0.9 (0.6) 0.317
Outdoor, n (%)4 30 (60) 33 (77) 0.118 37 (95) 28 (97) 1.000
Veiled clothing (0–2), md (IQR)5 1.1 (0.3) 1.0 (0.5) 0.285 0.0 (0.0) 0.03 (0.2) 0.317
Sun exposure of face, neck, forearms, n (%) 12 (24) 17 (40) 0.092 37 (95) 27 (93) 1.000
Sun vacation in winter, n (%) 1 (2) 2 (4) 1.00 6 (15) 0 (0) 0.250
  1. p-values by Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples for the categories drinking milk, eating fat fish, exercise and veiling clothing
  2. p-values by Related Samples Mc Nemar test for the categories outside (more than 30 min/day), sun exposure (face, neck, forearms) and sun vacation abroad (minimum one week per winter)
  3. 1 Missing values (n = 1–3) in each category are not reported in the table
  4. 2 Cheese times/w; 0 = never, 2 = 1–2 times/w, 4 = 3–5 times/w, 6 = 6–7 times/w
  5. 3 Fish times/w; 0 = never, 1 = 1–2 times/w, 3 = 3 or more times/w
  6. 4 Outside minimum 30 min per day in summer
  7. 5 Veiled clothing; 0 = short sleeves, legs/skirts in summer, 1 = long sleeves/legs without covering face and hands, 2 = long sleeves/skirts, scarf covering head/face and burka
  8. - no data for this variable at ten months follow up
  9. n Numbers, dl Deciliter, w Week, m Mean, SD Standard deviation, md Median, IQR Interquartile range