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Table 2 Lifestyle data at baseline in the Swedish reference group (RG) with serum hydroxyvitamin D > 50 nmol/L and the Somali and Swedish target groups (TG) with serum hydroxyvitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L.

From: Positive impact on vitamin D related lifestyle of medical advice in pregnant Somali-born women and new mothers: a mixed method study in Swedish primary care

  Swedish RG Somali TG Swedish TG
   p   p
n 31 51   40  
Milk, dl/day, m (SD) 4.2 (1.7) 1.8 (2.0) < 0.001 3.1 (1.9) 0.021
Cheese times/w, md (IQR)1 4.4 (1.2) 2.4 (2.5) 0.001 4.2 (2.0) 0.875
Fish times/w, md (IQR)2 0.9 (0.3) 0.7 (1.0) 0.005 0.8 (0.6) 0.176
Outdoors, n (%)3 29 (97) 30 (60) < 0.001 37 (95) 0.717
Veiled clothing, md (IQR)4 0.0 (0.0) 1.1 (0.3) < 0.001 0.0 (0.0) 1.00
Sun exposure face, neck, forearms, n (%) 28 (97) 12 (24) < 0.001 37 (95) 0.739
Sun vacation in winter, n (%) 5 (17) 1 (2) 0.016 6 (15) 0.885
  1. p-values = Swedish RG compared with Somali and Swedish TG
  2. p-values < 0.05 in bold calculated by t-test for milk deciliter/day; Mann-Whitney test for the ordinal scales cheese and fatty fish times/w and for degree of veiled clothing; chi-square test for answer yes for being outdoors during summer and sun exposure
  3. 1 Cheese times/w; 0 = never, 2 = 1–2 times/w, 4 = 3–5 times/w, 6 = 6–7 times/w
  4. 2 Fish times/w; 0 = never, 1 = 1–2 times/w, 3 = 3 or more times/w
  5. 3 Outdoor minimum 30 min per day in summer
  6. 4 Veiled clothing; 0 = short armed sleeves, short legs/skirts in summer, 1 = long sleeves/legs without covering face and hands, 2 = long arms/skirts, scarf covering head/face, burka
  7. n Numbers, dl Deciliter, m Mean, SD Standard deviation, w Week, md Median, IQR Interquartile range