# Table 1 Characteristics of the 123 pregnant women and new mothers at baseline

Somali-born

Swedish-born

n

52

71

Age, years, m (SD)

28 (6)

31 (5)

Height, cm, m (SD)

161 (5)

167 (6)

Education, years, m (SD)

3.3 (3.4)

13.8 (2.5)

Years in Sweden, m (SD)1

3.5 (2.6)

S-25-OHD, nmol/L, m (SD)2

16 (10)

49 (18)

Grip strength, N, m (SD)

199 (58)

318 (66)

Milk, dl/day, m (SD)

1.8 (2.0)

3.6 (1.9)

Cheese times/w, md (IQR)3

2.5 (2.5)

4.3 (1.7)

Fish times/w, md (IQR)4

0.7 (1.0)

0.8 (0.5)

Exercise times per week, md (IQR)5

1.5 (1.5)

1.8 (1.2)

Outdoors, n (%)6

31 (61)

66 (96)

Veiled clothing, md (IQR)7

1.1 (0.3)

0.0 (0.0)

Sun exposure face, neck, forearms, n (%)

13 (25)

65 (96)

Sun vacation in winter, n (%)

1 (2)

11 (16)

1. 1 Most of the Swedish-born women had lived all their lives in Sweden
2. 2 1/3 of Somali-born women had 25-OHD < 10 nmol/L. The value < 10 was replaced with a 9 for the calculation of the mean. The Somali median value was 12 nmol/L
3. 3 Cheese times/w; 0 = never, 2 = 1–2 times/w, 4 = 3–5 times/w, 6 = 6–7 times/w
4. 4 Fish times/w; 0 = never, 1 = 1–2 times/w, 3 = 3 or more times/w
5. 5 Exercise times per week; 0 = seldom or never, 1 = 1–2 times/w, 3 = minimum 3 times/w or more
6. 6 Outside minimum 30 min per day in summer
7. 7 Veiled clothing; 0 = short armed sleeves, short legs/skirts in summer, 1 = long sleeves/legs without covering face and hands, 2 = long arms/skirts, scarf covering head/face, burka
8. n Numbers, m Mean, SD Standard deviation, cm Centimeter, N Newton, dl Deciliter, w Week, md Median, IQR Interquartile range