Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of 1420 GOAL participants who had (Yes) or had not (No) used opioids during one year

From: Analgesic purchases among older adults – a population-based study

  Opioids purchased  
No
N = 960
Yes
N = 460
P-value
Pain
 Bodily Pain, mean (SD) 77 (21) 66 (25) < 0.001*
 Intensity, mean (SD) 72 (23) 61 (26) < 0.001*
 Interference, mean (SD) 82 (22) 71 (27) < 0.001*
Demographics
 Female sex, n (%) 534 (56) 250 (54) 0.65
 Age, mean (SD) 71 (7) 72 (7) 0.16
 Cohabiting, n (%) 662 (69) 321 (70) 0.75
 Education years, mean (SD) 9.8 (3.2) 9.6 (3.1) 0.37
 OECDsgrta, mean (SD) 1000€ 1.8 (1.1) 1.7 (0.6) 0.40
Smoking, n (%) 141 (15) 68 (15) 0.97
AUDIT-Cb, mean (SD) 2.6 (2.2) 2.6 (2.2) 0.83
LTPAc, n(%)    0.24
 Low 118 (12) 71 (15)  
 Moderate 689 (72) 323 (71)  
 High 148 (16) 64 (14)  
Clinical
 BMId, mean (SD) 27.8 (4.8) 28.4 (4.7) 0.021*
 Obese (BMId ≥ 30), n (%) 241 (26) 139 (31) 0.049*
 Waist cm, mean (SD)
  Female 92 (14) 94 (13) 0.057
  Male 100 (11) 103 (11) 0.002*
 MetSe, n (%) 385 (40) 218 (47) 0.009*
 Blood pressure mmHg, mean (SD)
  Systolic 138 (21) 137 (19) 0.32
  Diastolic 83 (11) 82 (10) 0.10
Morbidity (diagnosed), n (%)
 Cardiovascular disease 413 (43) 225 (49) 0.037*
 Diabetes mellitus type II 101 (11) 56 (12) 0.35
 Musculoskeletal disease 330 (34) 231 (50) < 0.001*
 Pulmonary disease 69 (7) 55 (12) 0.003*
 Psychiatric disease 27 (3) 22 (5) 0.057
 Neurological disease 25 (3) 16 (6) 0.36
 Neoplasm 47 (5) 44 (10) < 0.001*
Symptoms, n (%)
 Joint pain 264 (28) 182 (40) < 0.001*
 Back pain 235 (24) 163 (35) < 0.001*
 Neck pain 253 (26) 157 (34) < 0.001*
 Headache 109 (11) 61 (13) 0.30
 Insomnia 176 (18) 91 (20) 0.51
 Depression 40 (4) 32 (7) 0.025*
Laboratory tests, mean (SD)
 Glucose, mMol/L 5.66 (1.05) 5.68 (1.01) 0.72
 Triglyceride, mMol/L 1.26 (0.65) 1.23 (0.59) 0.47
 HDL, mMol/L 1.58 (0.46) 1.55 (0.47) 0.35
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 cm3 71 (14) 71 (15) 0.89
 hsCRP, mg/L 4.2 (4.0) 5.4 (9.5) 0.001*
 Uric acid, uMol/L 334 (73) 343 (79) 0.042*
Visited physician ≥3 times, n (%) 282 (29) 223 (48) < 0.001*
  1. *P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Data are presented as mean values (SD) and as absolute values and percentages. aOECDsgrt OECD square root–determined household income; bAUDIT-C Alcohol unit consumption per week; cLTPA Leisure-time physical activity; dBMI Body mass index; eMetS Metabolic syndrome. Laboratory test abbreviations: HDL High-density lipoprotein, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, hsCRP High-sensitivity C-reactive protein