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Table 4 Factors associated with adolescent anemia stratified by adolescent sex in rural western China, 2016

From: Anemia and associated factors among adolescent girls and boys at 10–14 years in rural western China

Factors Male Female P values for interaction between sex and factorsb
No. (%) of anemia Adjusted ORa 95% CI No. (%) of anemia Adjusted ORa 95% CI
Maternal age/yearsc        0.01
 Q1: ≤35 37 (11.4) 1.00   47 (14.9) 1.00   
 Q2: 36–39 15 (6.3) 0.54 0.24, 1.19 30 (17.9) 1.17 0.64, 2.14  
 Q3: ≥40 33 (10.8) 1.01 0.39, 2.64 16 (10.0) 0.54 0.20, 1.48  
Maternal education        0.01
 < 3 years 5 (8.9) 1.96 0.37, 10.44 12 (38.7) 5.84 1.51, 22.54  
 Primary 39 (14.5) 3.14 0.87, 11.31 22 (13.4) 0.90 0.30, 2.70  
 Secondary 37 (8.9) 1.89 0.56, 6.38 52 (15.3) 1.44 0.56, 3.68  
 High school+ 4 (3.1) 1.00   7 (6.7) 1.00   
Maternal occupation        0.61
 Farmer 25 (7.2) 1.00   23 (9.4) 1.00   
 Others 60 (11.4) 1.03 0.56, 1.90 70 (17.6) 0.58 0.33, 1.06  
Paternal age/yearsc        0.35
 Q1: ≤37 30 (10.5) 1.00   41 (14.3) 1.00   
 Q2: 38–41 23 (8.4) 0.83 0.40, 1.74 35 (17.2) 1.02 0.57, 1.84  
 Q3: ≥42 32 (10.3) 0.73 0.26, 2.07 17 (11.2) 0.72 0.25 2.04  
Paternal education        0.48
 < 3 years 2 (16.7) 1.00   2 (28.6) 1.00   
 Primary 14 (10.1) 0.32 0.05, 2.01 18 (22.5) 0.79 0.12, 5.38  
 Secondary 55 (10.6) 0.52 0.09, 3.18 59 (15.7) 0.56 0.08, 3.68  
 High school+ 14 (6.9) 0.68 0.10, 4.65 14 (7.8) 0.43 0.06, 3.17  
Paternal occupation        0.09
 Farmer 42 (7.6) 1.00   56 (13.6) 1.00   
 Others 40 (13.5) 0.58 0.33, 1.02 32 (15.2) 1.22 0.71, 2.12  
Household wealth        0.40
 Low 39 (12.6) 1.00   36 (16.7) 1.00   
 Medium 30 (11.7) 0.92 0.53, 1.61 40 (21.2) 1.62 0.93, 2.85  
 High 16 (5.2) 0.56 0.27, 1.13 17 (7.1) 0.61 0.30, 1.23  
Randomized regimens        0.09
 Folic acid 30 (9.6) 1.00   25 (11.6) 1.00   
 Iron/folic acid 32 (11.4) 1.16 0.65, 2.07 30 (13.6) 1.10 0.59, 2.08  
 Multiple micronutrients 23 (8.2) 0.95 0.52, 1.73 38 (18.4) 1.92 1.06, 3.47  
Adolescent age        0.39
 10 4 (11.1) 1.00   2 (5.4) 1.00   
 11 31 (10.0) 0.62 0.19, 2.02 24 (10.5) 1.61 0.35, 7.54  
 12 29 (9.4) 0.75 0.23, 2.51 42 (17.6) 2.53 0.53, 12.08  
 13–14 21 (9.6) 0.97 0.27, 3.52 25 (17.9) 2.67 0.52, 13.79  
Height for age z score        0.56
 Stunting (<−2SD) 3 (18.8) 1.00 0.20, 5.06 4 (25.0) 2.14 0.58, 7.94  
 -2 to 1 SD 73 (11.1) 1.00   80 (15.2) 1.00   
 Above average (>1SD) 9 (4.5) 0.57 0.25, 1.30 9 (9.1) 0.98 0.43, 2.23  
Whether having an illness in the last 2 weeks        0.27
 Yes 41 (12.2) 1.00   40 (15.8) 1.00   
 No 42 (7.9) 0.63 0.39, 1.02 53 (13.6) 0.92 0.56, 1.50  
Puberty developmentd        0.04
 Pre-puberty 29 (15.9) 1.00   11 (14.1) 1.00   
 Mild 40 (9.5) 0.59 0.33, 1.06 31 (13.7) 0.92 0.39, 2.13  
 Above mild 15 (5.7) 0.35 0.15, 0.83 51 (15.1) 0.72 0.29, 1.78  
Times of consuming flesh foods per day (Mean/SD)e        0.57
 Q1 (Lowest) 31 (14.8) 1.00   31 (18.8) 1.00   
 Q2 22 (7.9) 0.51 0.27, 0.97 32 (13.2) 0.68 0.37, 1.24  
 Q3 (Highest) 32 (8.3) 0.58 0.33, 1.05 30 (12.7) 0.96 0.52, 1.77  
Times of consuming beans per day (Mean/SD)e        0.36
 Q1 (Lowest) 33 (11.5) 1.00   29 (12.9) 1.00   
 Q2 42 (10.2) 0.94 0.56, 1.59 52 (16.7) 1.55 0.90, 2.68  
 Q3 (Highest) 10 (6.0) 0.54 0.24, 1.21 12 (11.8) 0.94 0.42, 2.10  
Times of consuming dairy products per day (Mean/SD)e        0.63
 Q1 (Lowest) 44 (13.0) 1.00   43 (17.6) 1.00   
 Q2 20 (6.9) 0.56 0.31, 1.02 34 (14.1) 0.80 0.46, 1.39  
 Q3 (Highest) 20 (8.4) 0.70 0.38, 1.28 16 (10.5) 0.67 0.34, 1.32  
Times of consuming egg per day (Mean/SD)e        0.22
 Q1 (Lowest) 34 (11.6) 1.00   42 (18.1) 1.00   
 Q2 26 (8.3) 0.70 0.39, 1.26 37 (14.9) 0.87 0.52, 1.51  
 Q3 (Highest) 25 (9.5) 0.75 0.41, 1.37 14 (8.9) 0.46 0.23, 0.92  
Meal frequency in 24 h        0.80
 Two times 50 (13.1) 1.52 0.91, 2.54 50 (17.7) 1.53 0.91, 2.55  
 Three times and four times 33 (6.9) 1.00   43 (12.1) 1.00   
  1. aThe adjusted model included all the variables in the table except for dietary variables. And then, each of the dietary variables were put in the adjusted model above one at a time
  2. bThe p values for interaction between sex and factors were calculated using likelihood-ratio test between including interaction terms and not including in the models
  3. cParents’ age was categorized by its tertiles
  4. dPuberty development was defined by the Tanner stages
  5. eThe frequency of consuming foods was converted into continuous variables namely times per day, which were then categorized by its tertiles. Flesh foods included meat, poultry and fish