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Table 2 Factors associated with adolescent anemia in rural western China, 2016 (N = 1517)

From: Anemia and associated factors among adolescent girls and boys at 10–14 years in rural western China

  Anemia/n(%) Unadjusted Adjusteda P values for trenda
OR 95% CI p values OR 95% CI p values
Maternal age/yearsb         0.50
 Q1: ≤35 84 (13.1) 1.00    1.00    
 Q2: 36–39 45 (11.0) 0.82 0.56, 1.21 0.32 0.85 0.53, 1.34 0.47  
 Q3: ≥40 49 (10.5) 0.78 0.54, 1.13 0.19 0.89 0.46, 1.69 0.71  
Maternal education         0.07
 < 3 years 17 (19.5) 1.00    1.00    
 Primary 61 (14.1) 0.68 0.37, 1.22 0.20 0.60 0.31, 1.15 0.13  
 Secondary 89 (11.8) 0.55 0.31, 0.97 0.04 0.56 0.28, 1.12 0.10  
 High school+ 11 (4.7) 0.20 0.09, 0.45 < 0.001 0.35 0.13, 0.93 0.04  
Maternal occupation        
 Farmer 130 (14.1) 1.00    1.00    
 Others 48 (8.1) 0.54 0.38, 0.76 < 0.001 0.81 0.53, 1.22 0.31  
Paternal age/yearb         0.42
 Q1: ≤37 71 (12.4) 1.00    1.00    
 Q2: 38–41 58 (12.2) 0.97 0.67, 1.41 0.89 0.97 0.62, 1.51 0.89  
 Q3: ≥42 49 (10.6) 0.83 0.56, 1.22 0.35 0.71 0.36, 1.43 0.34  
Paternal education         0.88
 < 3 years 4 (21.1) 1.00    1.00    
 Primary 32 (14.7) 0.65 0.20, 2.07 0.46 0.57 0.16, 1.97 0.37  
 Secondary 114 (12.8) 0.55 0.18, 1.68 0.29 0.63 0.18, 2.13 0.45  
 High school+ 28 (7.3) 0.30 0.09, 0.95 0.04 0.60 0.16, 2.20 0.44  
Paternal occupation
 Farmer 72 (14.2) 1.00    1.00    
 Others 98 (10.1) 0.68 0.49, 0.94 0.02 0.87 0.59, 1.27 0.46  
Household wealth      0.78 0.63, 0.98   0.03
 Low 75 (14.3) 1.00    1.00    
 Medium 70 (15.7) 1.12 0.78, 1.59 0.54 1.17 0.80, 1.72 0.38  
 High 33 (6.0) 0.39 0.25, 0.59 < 0.001 0.55 0.34, 0.88 0.01  
Randomized regimens
 Folic acid 55 (10.4) 1.00    1.00    
 Iron/folic acid 62 (12.4) 1.21 0.83, 1.79 0.32 1.10 0.72, 1.66 0.68  
 Multiple micronutrients 61 (12.6) 1.24 0.84, 1.82 0.28 1.27 0.85, 1.91 0.25  
Adolescent age      1.28 1.02, 1.62   0.04
 10 6 (8.2) 1.00    1.00    
 11 55 (10.2) 1.27 0.53, 3.07 0.59 1.01 0.40, 2.54 0.98  
 12 71 (13.0) 1.67 0.70, 3.98 0.25 1.48 0.58, 3.77 0.41  
 13–14 46 (12.8) 1.64 0.67, 4.00 0.28 1.64 0.61, 4.42 0.33  
Sex
 Male 85 (9.7) 1.00    1.00    
 Female 93 (14.4) 1.56 1.14, 2.14 0.01 1.73 1.21, 2.48 0.003  
Height for age z score         0.23
 Stunting (<−2SD) 7 (21.9) 1.89 0.80, 4.44 0.68 1.20 0.46, 3.13 0.71  
 -2 to 1 SD 153 (12.9) 1.00    1.00    
 Above average (>1SD) 18 (6.0) 0.43 0.26, 0.71 0.43 0.71 0.40, 1.24 0.22  
Whether having an illness in the last 2 weeks
 Yes 81 (13.7) 1.00    1.00    
 No 95 (10.3) 0.72 0.53, 0.99 0.04 0.76 0.54, 1.06 0.10  
Puberty developmentc      0.70 0.53, 0.93   0.01
 Pre-puberty 40 (15.4) 1.00    1.00    
 Mild 71 (11.0) 0.68 0.45, 1.03 0.07 0.64 0.40, 1.01 0.06  
 Above mild 66 (11.0) 0.68 0.44, 1.03 0.07 0.50 0.29, 0.87 0.01  
Times of consuming flesh foods per day (Mean/SD)d         0.11
 Q1 (Lowest) 62 (16.6) 1.00    1.00    
 Q2 54 (10.3) 0.58 0.39, 0.86 0.01 0.58 0.38, 0.89 0.01  
 Q3 (Highest) 62 (10.0) 0.56 0.38, 0.82 0.003 0.72 0.48, 1.08 0.11  
Times of consuming beans per day (Mean/SD)d         0.48
 Q1 (Lowest) 62 (12.1) 1.00    1.00    
 Q2 94 (13.0) 1.08 0.77, 1.53 0.64 1.20 0.83, 1.73 0.34  
 Q3 (Highest) 22 (8.2) 0.64 0.39, 1.07 0.09 0.75 0.44, 1.31 0.31  
Times of consuming dairy products per day (Mean/SD)d      0.79 0.64, 0.99   0.04
 Q1 (Lowest) 87 (14.9) 1.00    1.00    
 Q2 54 (10.2) 0.64 0.45, 0.93 0.02 0.68 0.46, 1.01 0.06  
 Q3 (Highest) 36 (9.2) 0.58 0.38, 0.88 0.01 0.70 0.45, 1.09 0.11  
Times of consuming egg per day (Mean/SD)d      0.76 0.62, 0.95   0.01
 Q1 (Lowest) 76 (14.5) 1.00    1.00    
 Q2 63 (11.2) 0.74 0.52, 1.06 0.11 0.79 0.54, 1.15 0.22  
 Q3 (Highest) 39 (9.3) 0.61 0.40, 0.92 0.02 0.60 0.38, 0.93 0.02  
Meal frequency in 24 h        
 Two times 100 (15.1) 1.00    1.00    
 Three times and four times 76 (9.1) 0.56 0.41, 0.77 < 0.001 0.68 0.48, 0.96 0.03  
  1. aThe adjusted model included all the variables in the table except for dietary variables. And then, each of the dietary variables were put in the adjusted model above one at a time. The p values for trend were calculated by treating the factors as ordinal variables in the adjusted models above
  2. bParents’ age was categorized by its tertiles
  3. cPuberty development was defined by the Tanner stages
  4. dThe frequency of consuming foods was converted into continuous variables, namely times per day, which were then categorized by its tertiles. Flesh foods included meat, poultry and fish