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Table 1 Background characteristics and anemia status among adolescents in rural Western China, 2016a

From: Anemia and associated factors among adolescent girls and boys at 10–14 years in rural western China

Parental characteristics Total/n(%) Adolescent characteristics Total/n(%)
N 1517 (100.0) N 1517 (100.0)
Maternal age/yearsb   Adolescent age/years (Mean ± SD) 11.8 (0.9)
 Mean (SD) 37.3 (4.4) 10 73 (4.8)
 Q1: ≤35 642 (42.3) 11 538 (35.5)
 Q2: 36–39 408 (26.9) 12 547 (36.1)
 Q3: ≥40 467 (30.8) 13–14 (only two children were 14) 359 (23.7)
Maternal education   Sex  
 < 3 years 87 (5.8) Male 873 (57.6)
 Primary 433 (28.6) Female 644 (42.5)
 Secondary 757 (50.1) Hemoglobin concentrations (g/L, Mean ± SD) 133.0 (14.9)
 High school+ 235 (15.5) BMI for age z score  
Maternal occupation   Thinness (<−2SD) 82 (5.5)
 Farmer 923 (60.9) Normal weight 1202 (80.0)
 Others 593 (39.1) Overweight (>1SD) 219 (14.6)
Paternal age/yearsb   Height for age z score  
 Mean (SD) 39.5 (4.1) Stunting (<−2SD) 32 (2.1)
 Q1: ≤37 571 (37.8) -2 to 1 SD 1184 (78.1)
 Q2: 38–41 477 (31.6) Stature above average (>1SD) 300 (19.8)
 Q3: ≥42 464 (30.7) Whether having an illness in last 2 weeks  
Paternal education   Yes 590 (39.0)
 < 3 years 19 (1.3) No 923 (61.0)
 Primary 218 (14.4) Puberty developmentc  
 Secondary 894 (59.1) Pre-puberty 260 (17.2)
 High school+ 383 (25.3) Mild 646 (42.8)
Paternal occupation   Above mild 602 (39.9)
 Farmer 507 (34.4) Times of consuming flesh foods per day/Mean (SD)d 0.23 (0.28)
 Others 968 (65.6) Q1 (< 0.03) 374 (24.7)
Household wealth   Q2 (0.03–0.14) 523 (34.5)
 Low 525 (34.6) Q3 (> 0.14) 620 (40.9)
 Medium 446 (29.4) Times of consuming beans per day/Mean (SD)d 0.29 (0.33)
 High 546 (36.0) Q1 (< 0.03) 512 (34.0)
Randomized regimens   Q2 (0.03–0.43) 723 (48.0)
 Folic acid 529 (34.9) Q3 (> 0.43) 270 (17.9)
 Iron/folic acid 502 (33.1) Times of consuming dairy products per day/Mean(SD)d 0.33 (0.38)
 Multiple micronutrients 486 (32.0) Q1 (< 0.03) 583 (38.7)
   Q2 (0.03–0.43) 54 (30.5)
   Q3 (> 0.43) 36 (20.3)
   Times of consuming egg per day/Mean(SD)d 0.38 (0.37)
   Q1 (< 0.07) 526 (34.9)
   Q2 (0.07–0.43) 564 (37.4)
   Q3 (> 0.43) 419 (27.8)
   Meal frequency in 24 h  
   Two times 663 (44.2)
   Three times and four timese 836 (55.8)
  1. aData are missing for maternal education (n = 5), maternal occupation (n = 1), paternal education (n = 3), paternal occupation (n = 42), BMI for age z score (n = 14), height for age z score (n = 1), high protein-based food (n = 4), puberty development (n = 9), beans (n = 2), dairy products (n = 2), egg (n = 8), and meal frequency (n = 18)
  2. bParents’ age was categorized by its tertiles
  3. cPuberty development was defined by the Tanner stages
  4. dThe frequency of consuming foods was converted into continuous variables, namely times per day, which were then categorized by its tertiles. Flesh foods included meat, poultry and fish
  5. eOnly 14 (0.9%) adolescents had a meal frequency of four times per day