Skip to main content

Table 4 QOL scores among different subgroups in nuclear family system, Abbottabad, Pakistan (n = 1010)*

From: Factors associated with quality of life among joint and nuclear families: a population-based study

  Physical Psychological Relationship Environmental General facet
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Type of residence
 Urban 67.4 ± 15.8 70.5 ± 15.2 73.0 ± 16.0 58.5. ± 14.8 66.6 ± 18.5
 Rural 63.7 ± 14.8 65.5 ± 15.2 70.8 ± 16.0 52.6 ± 15.0 67.1 ± 18.6
P value (t test) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.714
Gender
 Male 66.0 ± 15.6 68.4 ± 14.4 72.5 ± 14.9 55.6 ± 14.7 66.0 ± 18.9
 Female 63.6 ± 14.8 65.5 ± 16.1 70.4 ± 17.2 53.2 ± 15.5 68.0 ± 18.1
P value (t test) < 0.001 < 0.003 0.037 0.011 0.079
Age
  < 30 67.8 ± 14.4 68.3 ± 15.0 69.6 ± 16.8 54.5 ± 15.4 68.8 ± 17.9
 31–40 64.2 ± 14.0 66.0 ± 15.1 72.4 ± 15.7 53.4 ± 14.8 66.8 ± 18.2
 41–50 64.0 ± 15.2 67.7 ± 15.3 72.5 ± 15.5 55.4 ± 14.1 65.7 ± 18.2
  > 50 60.4 ± 17.3 64.6 ± 16.9 71.2 ± 15.9 54.5 ± 17.6 64.7 ± 21.6
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 0.079 0.87 0.476 0.128
Residence ownership
 Owner 64.8 ± 15.0 66.9 ± 15.1 71.3 ± 15.9 54.1 ± 15.0 68.3 ± 17.2
 Not owner 65.3 ± 17.0 67.8 ± 17.1 72.3 ± 17.5 54.4 ± 16.2 69.6 ± 18.5
P value (t test) 0.700 0.560 0.509 0.818 0.361
Marital status
 Married 63.9 ± 14.7 67.2 ± 15.0 72.6 ± 15.3 54.5 ± 14.9 67.3 ± 18.1
 Widow 53.3 ± 19.2 49.3 ± 20.6 56.3 ± 24.2 37.4 ± 09.6 43.7 ± 26.0
 Divorced 76.8 ± 12.6 73.0 ± 8.9 66.7 ± 23.6 73.4 ± 15.5 81.2 ± 8.9
 Separated 72.6 ± 11.5 76.4 ± 15.0 68.7 ± 17.2 57.3 ± 11.0 79.2 ± 7.2
 Never married 70.1 ± 15.4 68.3 ± 14.8 68.9 ± 15.7 55.5 ± 15.7 68.3 ± 17.2
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Education
 No education 58.3 ± 15.3 59.8 ± 16.9 66.8 ± 16.2 48.0 ± 15.7 58.0 ± 22.5
 Informal education 63.2 ± 17.9 76.2 ± 13.5 74.4 ± 10.9 58.0 ± 14.0 70.7 ± 16.1
 Can read / write 60.6 ± 14.9 64.0 ± 16.4 69.0 ± 16.1 52.5 ± 14.5 63.2 ± 18.3
 Primary (up to grade 5) 65.5 ± 14.8 67.4 ± 14.6 72.7 ± 15.7 55.3 ± 14.2 67.7 ± 17.8
 Secondary (up to grade 12) 68.0 ± 14.9 70.0 ± 14.7 72.3 ± 16.5 56.4 ± 15.2 69.4 ± 17.0
 Tertiary (up to grade 16 or above) 67.4 ± 12.6 70.0 ± 13.7 73.9 ± 14.9 55.5 ± 15.4 74.7 ± 12.2
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Disease
 Physical disability 56.4 ± 21.4 62.2 ± 17.4 51.70 ± 13.5 55.4 ± 14.0 63.3 ± 22.9
 Hypertension 61.3 ± 15.2 66.8 ± 15.9 57.0 ± 15.8 52.6 ± 17.4 66.7 ± 17.7
 Diabetes 53.3 ± 15.7 62.5 ± 16.3 56.5 ± 15.6 47.8 ± 15.0 63.5 ± 16.8
 Other 63.4 ± 15.3 65.6 ± 15.6 55.1 ± 14.2 54.1 ± 15.4 64.9 ± 19.8
 None 68.2 ± 14.0 69.2 ± 14.4 58.20 ± 13.8 55.6 ± 14.3 70.0 ± 16.5
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 0.002 0.249 0.109 < 0.001
Employment status
 Not working 63.4 ± 15.6 65.0 ± 17.1 70.4 ± 16.4 53.0 ± 15.8 64.5 ± 21.1
 Working 66.0 ± 14.6 68.7 ± 13.7 72.3 ± 15.8 55.4 ± 14.7 69.0 ± 16.8
 Retired 63.3 ± 18.9 62.7 ± 16.3 70.4 ± 15.8 54.3 ± 14.5 63.8 ± 21.1
P value (F statistic) 0.034 < 0.001 0.195 0.047 < 0.001
Socioeconomic status
 High 68.9 ± 13.7 72.3 ± 14.4 74.3 ± 15.6 60.4 ± 14.3 74.4 ± 15.5
 Intermediate 65.3 ± 14.9 69.0 ± 13.1 74.1 ± 14.9 55.8 ± 13.6 68.7 ± 15.6
 Low 61.5 ± 15.8 61.6 ± 16.0 67.4 ± 16.4 48.8 ± 15.0 60.4 ± 19.9
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Social capital
 High SC 66.2 ± 14.4 68.1 ± 13.4 73.3 ± 15.2 57.9 ± 13.6 68.9 ± 18.3
 Moderate SC 65.2 ± 15.1 67.6 ± 15.2 71.8 ± 15.7 54.6 ± 14.7 67.7 ± 18.3
 Low SC 60.7 ± 16.2 62.0 ± 17.6 67.1 ± 18.5 48.6 ± 17.7 60.8 ± 19.3
P value (F statistic) 0.006 < 0.001 0.004 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. *Using the 0–100 scoring method