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Table 3 Multivariate linear regression analysis for physical, psychological, social and environmental health domains of joint family in Abbottabad, Pakistan (n = 1053)*

From: Factors associated with quality of life among joint and nuclear families: a population-based study

  Physical Domain Psychological Domain Relationship Domain Environmental Domain
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Fixed effects
Residence
  Urban Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
  Rural −4.59(−7.77 to −1.41) −3.54(−6.4 to −0.63) −5.32(−8.75 to − 1.89)
Gender
 Male Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Female −3.94(−5.88 to −2.01) −3.10(−4.7 to −1.47) −1.11(− 3.06 to −0.84
Age (Decades) −0.22(− 0.29 to − 0.19 −0.11(− 0.2 to − 0.05) −0.12(− 0.19 to − 0.05)
Disease
 None Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Physical disability −10.3(− 17.8 to − 2.80) − 8.79(− 15.8 to − 1.7)
 Hypertension −5.26(−9.3 to − 1.85 −5.26(− 8.87 to − 1.7)
 Diabetes −8.05(− 13.13 to − 2.9) −6.17(− 10.9 to − 1.3)
 Others −4.26(− 6.59 to − 1.94) − 3.36(− 5.5 to − 1.18)
Socio-economic status
 High Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Intermediate −0.33(−2.39 to 1.73) − 2.20(− 4.1 to − 0.25) −3.09(− 5.37 to − 0.80) −3.76(− 5.61 to − 1.90)
 Low − 3.81(− 6.17 to − 1.45) − 7.60(− 9.8 to − 5.40) −9.86(− 12.4 to − 7.30) −9.06(− 11.2 to − 6.94)
Social capital 0.12(0.06 to 0.17) 0.13(0.08 to 0.19) 0.16(0.10 to 0.22) 0.13(0.08 to 0.18)
Random-effects
Level 1: Union Council
  Gender 0.02(0.00 to 4.54) 0.97(0.24 to 3.95) 0.43(0.21 to 4.53) 2.44(1.38 to 4.30)
  Age 0.02(0.00 to 6.64) 0.05(0.00 to 0.51) 0.06(0.02 to 0.18) 0.05(0.01 to 0.24)
  Social capital 0.04(0.01 to 0.21) 0.06(0.03 to 0.11) 0.02(0.00 to 1.22) 0.02(0.00 to 1.39)
  Constant 3.0(1.02 to 8.81) 0.01(0.00 to 0.48) 0.01(0.00 to 0.20) 0.99(0.52 to 10.86)
Level 2: Cluster number
 Constant 3.30(2.04 to 5.36) 4.20(3.07 to 5.75) 5.50(4.15 to 7.31) 5.10(3.96 to 6.57)
 Residual 13.07(12.4 to 13.71) 12.14(11.5 to 12.7) 14.6(13.97 to 15.34) 11.5(10.93 to 12.0)
  1. *Explanations: Β Beta coefficient, CI Confidence interval, Ref Reference group; The linear regression multivariate model adjusted for residence ownership, marital status, education and employment status in Physical domain and Psychological domain. Type of residence, residence ownership, marital status, education, employment status and disease for Social domain; Residence ownership, marital status, age, sex, education, employment status, and disease in Environmental domain; The short dashes (−) mean that the variable was removed by the stepwise deletion process in regression analysis