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Table 2 QOL scores among different subgroups in joint family system, Abbottabad, Pakistan (n = 1053)*

From: Factors associated with quality of life among joint and nuclear families: a population-based study

  Physical Psychological Relationship Environmental General facet
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Type of residence
 Urban 68.6 ± 15.6 71.0 ± 14.4 74.1 ± 15.8 59.9 ± 14.2 69.4 ± 16.0
 Rural 63.7 ± 14.9 65.9 ± 14.7 71.0 ± 16.6 53.7 ± 14.5 69.2 ± 16.9
P value (t test) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.891
Gender
 Male 66.7 ± 15.6 69.0 ± 14.5 72.4 ± 16.8 56.5 ± 13.6 68.6 ± 17.3
 Female 63.4 ± 14.6 66.6 ± 14.2 72.3 ± 17.0 56.5 ± 14.2 70.0 ± 15.8
P value (t test) < 0.001 < 0.006 0.896 0.988 0.161
Age
  < 30 67.8 ± 14.0 68.7 ± 13.4 73.8 ± 15.4 56.9 ± 14.00 70.4 ± 15.4
 31–40 65.3 ± 14.6 68.4 ± 15.1 72.1 ± 17.0 56.0 ± 14.3 69.7 ± 17.1
 41–50 64.3 ± 16.0 68.2 ± 13.8 72.0 ± 18.0 57.0 ± 15.3 69.4 ± 17.7
  > 50 60.4 ± 16.8 65.1 ± 15.3 69.7 ± 18.6 56.0 ± 14.4 66.4 ± 17.4
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 0.020 0.038 0.829 0.041
Residence ownership
 Owner 65.0 ± 15.2 67.7 ± 14.21 72.6 ± 16.8 56.5 ± 14.3 68.3 ± 17.2
 Not owner 66.1 ± 15.1 70.2 ± 16.4 70.1 ± 16.5 58.2 ± 15.0 69.6 ± 18.5
P value (t test) 0.590 0.208 0.276 0.340 0.361
Marital status
 Married 64.6 ± 15.0 67.8 ± 14.4 73.0 ± 16.9 56.5 ± 14.4 69.3 ± 16.7
 Widow 56.2 ± 15.7 60.4 ± 15.2 65.5 ± 17.2 52.0 ± 13.9 61.4 ± 18.3
 Divorced 76.8 ± 10.7 76.0 ± 10.4 60.4 ± 14.2 53.1 ± 6.8 65.6 ± 12.0
 Separated 69.6 ± 20.7 63.5 ± 15.0 68.7 ± 17.2 52.3 ± 8.6 65.6 ± 21.3
 Never married 69.4 ± 14.8 70.0 ± 13.6 71.0 ± 16.3 57.9 ± 14.1 71.3 ± 15.3
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 0.006 0.038 0.227 0.029
Education
 No education 59.5 ± 15.8 62.9 ± 16.0 67.8 ± 19.4 54.5 ± 15.2 62.3 ± 19.0
 Informal education 65.4 ± 19.5 71.1 ± 16.0 72.9 ± 14.7 58.8 ± 17.1 71.1 ± 13.5
 Can read / write 63.0 ± 16.6 63.9 ± 14.9 68.6 ± 18.9 55.3 ± 13.8 66.2 ± 16.8
 Primary (up to grade 5) 66.0 ± 14.5 68.1 ± 13.4 73.3 ± 16.2 57.2 ± 13.6 69.2 ± 16.2
 Secondary (up to grade 12) 67.5 ± 14.8 71.1 ± 13.7 74.0 ± 15.3 57.2 ± 14.0 73.1 ± 15.0
 Tertiary (up to grade 16 or above) 63.3 ± 14.0 68.8 ± 13.1 75.7 ± 16.0 56.4 ± 14.7 71.8 ± 16.1
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.317 < 0.001
Disease
 Physical disability 58.8 ± 17.5 61.8 ± 18.1 69.2 ± 12.9 51.7 ± 13.5 63.5 ± 14.8
 Hypertension 61.3 ± 18.0 65.2 ± 15.4 79.0 ± 18.0 57.0 ± 15.8 65.7 ± 17.8
 Diabetes 57.0 ± 19.2 61.8 ± 18.8 69.4 ± 19.3 56.5 ± 15.6 59.2 ± 24.9
 Other 64.0 ± 15.1 66.8 ± 14.0 72.0 ± 17.1 55.1 ± 14.2 69.2 ± 16.4
 None 68.0 ± 13.8 70.1 ± 13.8 73.7 ± 16.1 58.2 ± 13.8 71.1 ± 15.5
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.095 0.017 < 0.001
Employment status
 Not working 62.8 ± 16.3 66.3 ± 14.5 72.0 ± 16.9 56.4 ± 14.4 66.5 ± 17.4
 Working 66.8 ± 14.0 69.0 ± 14.8 72.4 ± 17.0 56.5 ± 14.3 71.3 ± 15.8
 Retired 63.0 ± 18.3 67.5 ± 14.4 74.3 ± 17.0 59.0 ± 14.9 68.1 ± 17.0
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 0.016 0.605 0.402 < 0.001
Socioeconomic status
 High 67.8 ± 15.3 71.5 ± 13.2 76.5 ± 15.1 61.2 ± 13.3 74.3 ± 15.3
 Intermediate 65.6 ± 15.1 68.4 ± 14.1 73.1 ± 15.6 56.9 ± 13.5 69.1 ± 15.4
 Low 60.7 ± 15.3 62.2 ± 14.6 65.8 ± 18.7 50.0 ± 14.4 62.8 ± 17.6
P value (F statistic) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Social capital
 High SC 67.1 ± 14.9 71.3 ± 13.7 76.8 ± 16.1 59.8 ± 14.0 74.7 ± 14.5
 Moderate SC 65.2 ± 15.1 67.8 ± 14.7 72.4 ± 16.5 56.4 ± 14.2 69.0 ± 16.3
 Low SC 62.3 ± 16.4 64.4 ± 14.4 66.3 ± 18.2 50.9 ± 16.6 64.1 ± 19.9
P value (F statistic) 0.059 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.005 < 0.001
  1. *Using the 0–100 scoring method