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Table 3 Hazard Ratios for Incident Fatal and Non-fatal Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality According to Incarceration History Status, Stratified by Sex and Race, CARDIA Study

From: Association between incarceration and incident cardiovascular disease events: results from the CARDIA cohort study

Event n/N Rate per 1000 person-years, incarceration history Rate per 1000 person-years, no incarceration history Model 1
HR (95% CI)
Model 2
HR (95% CI)
Model 3
HR (95% CI)
Cardiovascular diseases
 White Men 78/1167 5.20 2.25 2.40 (1.23–4.66) 2.87 (1.48–5.62) 3.35 (1.54–7.29)
 Black Men 102/1155 3.13 3.33 0.94 (0.55–1.61) 1.01 (0.59–1.73) 0.82 (0.44–1.52)
 White Women 38/1305 1.44 1.02 1.40 (0.19–10.18) 1.45 (0.20–10.57) 1.60 (0.20–12.57)
 Black Women 95/1478 3.66 1.20 1.63 (0.71–3.72) 1.66 (0.73–3.80) 1.22 (0.44–3.40)
All-cause mortality
 White Men 91/1167 6.53 2.54 2.60 (1.44–4.67) 2.89 (1.60–5.22) 2.52 (1.32–4.83)
 Black Men 167/1155 6.15 5.14 1.23 (0.83–1.80) 1.29 (0.88–1.90) 0.92 (0.55–1.52)
 White Women 64/1305 1.44 1.72 0.83 (0.12–6.00) 0.87 (0.12–6.24) 0.63 (0.08–4.87)
 Black Women 109/1478 4.19 2.54 1.49 (0.69–3.23) 1.54 (0.71–3.35) 1.24 (0.49–3.13)
  1. Model 1: Unadjusted
  2. Model 2: Adjusted for baseline age
  3. Model 3: Adjusted for baseline age, sex, race, baseline education, baseline smoking, baseline excessive alcohol use, baseline physical activity, baseline body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure, baseline blood pressure lowering medication use, baseline total cholesterol, and baseline high density lipoprotein cholesterol
  4. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence intervals