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Table 2 Event Rates for Incident Fatal and Non-fatal Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality According to Incarceration History Status Stratified by Sex and Race, CARDIA Study

From: Association between incarceration and incident cardiovascular disease events: results from the CARDIA cohort study

Event White Men P Value Black Men P Value White Women P Value Black Women P Value
Incarceration History (n = 73) No Incarceration History (n = 1094) Incarceration History (n = 195) No Incarceration History (n = 960) Incarceration History (n = 24) No Incarceration History (n = 1281) Incarceration History (n = 59) Incarceration History (n = 1419)
Cardiovascular disease, No.a (%) 10 (13.7) 68 (6.2) 0.01 16 (8.2) 86 (9.0) 0.73 1 (4.2) 37 (2.9) 0.71 6 (10.2) 89 (6.3) 0.23
Coronary heart disease, No. (%) 7 (9.6) 56 (5.1) 0.10 7 (3.6) 39 (4.1) 0.76 0 (0.0) 21 (1.6) 0.53 2 (3.4) 26 (1.8) 0.39
Stroke, No. (%) 1 (1.4) 9 (0.8) 0.62 5 (2.6) 30 (3.1) 0.68 0 (0.0) 12 (0.9) 0.63 4 (6.8) 44 (3.1) 0.12
Heart failure, No. (%) 2 (2.7) 7 (0.5) 0.05 7 (3.6) 32 (3.3) 0.85 1 (4.2) 5 (0.4) <.01 2 (3.4) 31 (2.2) 0.53
All-cause mortality, No. (%) 13 (17.8) 78 (7.1) <.01 32 (16.4) 135 (14.1) 0.40 1 (4.2) 63 (4.9) 0.87 7 (11.9) 102 (7.2) 0.18
  1. aSome participants had more than one event, which explains why the individual outcomes are greater than the total number of cardiovascular disease events