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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics According to Incarceration History Status, CARDIA Study: 1985–1988

From: Association between incarceration and incident cardiovascular disease events: results from the CARDIA cohort study

Baseline Characteristic Incarceration
(n = 351)
No Incarceration History
(n = 4754)
P Value
Age, mean (SD), years 24.0 (3.7) 24.9 (3.6) <.0001
Male sex, No. (%) 268 (76.4) 2054 (43.2) <.0001
Black race, No. (%) 254 (72.4) 2379 (50.0) <.0001
Education, mean (SD), years 12.4 (1.8) 13.9 (2.3) <.0001
Individual annual income <$25,000, No. (%)a 173 (61.8) 1462 (36.7) <.0001
Smoker, No. (%) 190 (55.1) 1351 (28.6) <.0001
Heavy alcohol use, No. (%) 98 (28.0) 550 (11.6) <.0001
Illicit drug use, No. (%)b 86 (26.5) 312 (7.3) <.0001
Heavy or moderate exercise, median (IQR), MET-minutes per week 443 (254, 714) 356 (192, 571) < 0.001
Body mass index, mean (SD), kg/m2 24.1 (4.3) 24.5 (5.1) 0.11
Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD), mmHg 113.1 (11.4) 110.2 (10.9) <.0001
Diastolic blood pressure, mean (SD), mmHg 69.0 (10.7) 68.6 (9.5) 0.38
Blood pressure medication, No. (%) 8 (2.3) 107 (2.3) 0.85
Total cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dl 175.4 (34.9) 176.9 (33.4) 0.43
Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dl 106.1 (32.1) 109.3 (31.1) 0.06
High density lipoprotein cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dl 54.1 (14.7) 53.1 (13.1) 0.17
Triglycerides, median (IQR), mg/dl 65 (47.5, 90.5) 62 (45, 84) 0.04
Fasting plasma glucose, mean (SD), mg/dl 83.4 (9.4) 82.5 (16.7) 0.36
Diabetes medication, No. (%) 1 (0.3) 13 (0.3) 1.00
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. IQR interquartile range
  3. MET metabolic equivalent
  4. a836 (16%) participants did not respond to this question
  5. b532 (10%) participants did not respond to this question