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Table 4 Multivariable logistic regression models for hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients in South Korea (n = 7669, death = 233, 3.0%)

From: Socioeconomic disparity and the risk of contracting COVID-19 in South Korea: an NHIS-COVID-19 database cohort study

Variable Multivariable model P-value
OR (95% CI)
Income level 2020 (Feb), per increase 5% (model 1) 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 0.472
Income level 2020 (Feb) (model 2)
 Q4 (Highest) 1  
 Q3 1.25 (0.80, 1.94) 0.322
 Q2 1.18 (0.71, 1.96) 0.526
 Q1 (Lowest) 1.23 (0.83, 1.80) 0.300
 unknown 0.68 (0.17, 2.71) 0.586
AGE, 10 year increase 3.23 (2.70, 3.86) < 0.001
Sex, male 2.48 (1.81,3.41) < 0.001
Residence at Februrary, 2020
 Seoul 1  
 Gyeonggi-do 2.86 (0.79, 10.36) 0.109
 Daegu 3.39 (0.80, 14.33) 0.096
 Gyeongsangbuk-do 2.49 (0.66, 9.33) 0.176
 Other area 2.41 (0.60, 9.72) 0.216
Grade of disability
 No disability 1  
 Severe 2.82 (1.68, 4.73) < 0.001
 Mild to moderate 0.87 (0.55, 1.38) 0.557
Charlson comorbidity index, 1 point (model 1) 1.27 (1.04, 1.55) 0.017
 Peripheral vascular disease 1.13 (0.76, 1.69) 0.549
 Renal disease 1.57 (0.93, 2.64) 0.093
 Rheumatic disease 0.39 (0.18, 0.84) 0.016
 Dementia 1.87 (1.27, 2.73) 0.001
 Peptic ulcer disease 1.10 (0.76, 1.60) 0.620
 DM without chronic complication 1.74 (1.13, 2.69) 0.013
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia 1.59 (0.83, 3.07) 0.163
 Moderate or severe liver disease 3.50 (0.87, 14.12) 0.078
 Mild liver disease 0.78 (0.56, 1.09) 0.150
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1.69 (1.23, 2.33) 0.001
 DM with chronic complication 1.74 (1.13, 2.69) 0.013
 Cerebrovascular disease 0.73 (0.48, 1.10) 0.131
 Congestive heart failure 1.89 (1.35, 2.66) < 0.001
 Myocardial infarction 0.96 (0.56, 1.64) 0.879
 Malignancy 1.02 (0.73, 1.42) 0.905
 Metastatic solid tumor 1.96 (1.26, 3.05) 0.003
 AIDS/HIV 1.19 (0.09, 15.64) 0.893
  1. AUC of multivariable model 1 and 2: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.83)
  2. Multivariable model 1 included the income level in 2020 as a categorical variable using quartile ratios; model 2 included the income level in 2020 as a continuous variable (per 5% decrease); model 3 included the average income level for 6 years (2015–2020) for sensitivity analysis. In addition, the grade of disability, and CCI were included in multivariable model 1, whereas specific underlying diseases, which were used to calculate the CCI, were included in multivariable model 2
  3. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, DM diabetes mellitus, AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, AUC area under curve