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Table 2 Multivariable logistic regression models for diagnosis of COVID-19 in South Korea

From: Socioeconomic disparity and the risk of contracting COVID-19 in South Korea: an NHIS-COVID-19 database cohort study

Variable Multivariable model P-value
OR (95% CI)
Income level 2020 (Feb), model 1
 Q4 (Highest) 1  
 Q3 0.94 (0.87, 1.01) 0.062
 Q2 0.96 (0.89, 1.03) 0.258
 Q1 (Lowest) 1.19 (1.12, 1.27) < 0.001
 unknown 0.92 (0.76, 1.12) 0.425
Income level 2020 (Feb), per decrease 5%, model 2 1.01 (1.01, 1.02) < 0.001
Average Income level (2015–2020), model 3
 Q4 (Highest) 1  
 Q3 0.93 (0.87, 1.05) 0.062
 Q2 1.03 (0.96, 1.10) 0.361
 Q1 (Lowest) 1.10 (1.01, 1.19) 0.028
 unknown 1.25 (1.15, 1.37) < 0.001
Age, year
 20–29 1  
 30–39 0.91 (0.84, 0.99) 0.321
 40–49 0.81 (0.75, 0.88) < 0.001
 50–59 0.69 (0.64, 0.74) < 0.001
 60–69 0.51 (0.47, 0.55) < 0.001
 70–79 0.36 (0.32, 0.40) < 0.001
 ≥ 80 0.28 (0.24, 0.32) < 0.001
Sex, male 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 0.493
Residence at Februrary, 2020
 Seoul 1  
 Gyeonggi-do 0.92 (0.83 1.01) 0.090
 Daegu 0.97 (0.85 1.12) 0.693
 Gyeongsangbuk-do 0.90 (0.80 1.02) 0.092
 Other area 0.89 (0.79 1.01) 0.063
Grade of disability (model 1)
 No disability 1  
 Severe 1.45 (1.26 1.67) < 0.001
 Mild to moderate 0.89 (0.78 1.02) 0.088
Type of disability (model 2)
 No disability 1  
 Physical disability 1.01 (0.87, 1.17) 0.872
 Brain lesion disability 1.32 (1.02, 1.70) 0.033
 Visual disturbance 0.83 (0.59, 1.15) 0.254
 Hearing disability 1.20 (0.97, 1.48) 0.099
 Other disability 1.82 (1.55, 2.15) < 0.001
Charlson comorbidity index 2020, 1 point (model 1) 1.19 (1.18, 1.20) < 0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease 0.69 0.62 0.77 < 0.001
 Renal disease 0.84 0.68 1.03 0.093
 Rheumatic disease 1.08 0.93 1.25 0.330
 Dementia 1.97 1.72 2.25 < 0.001
 Peptic ulcer disease 1.26 1.17 1.36 < 0.001
 DM without chronic complication 1.69 1.57 1.82 < 0.001
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia 2.36 1.83 3.05 < 0.001
 Moderate or severe liver disease 0.62 0.34 1.14 0.123
 Mild liver disease 1.90 1.77 2.03 < 0.001
 Chronic pulmonary disease 3.62 3.42 3.83 < 0.001
 DM with chronic complication 0.77 0.67 0.88 < 0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease 0.94 0.84 1.06 0.328
 Congestive heart failure 2.40 2.16 2.67 < 0.001
 Myocardial infarction 4.64 4.00 5.38 < 0.001
 Metastatic solid tumor 1.70 1.61 1.80 < 0.001
 Malignancy 0.89 0.79 1.01 0.084
 AIDS/HIV 3.39 1.46 7.87 0.005
  1. AUC of multivariable model 1,2, and 3: 0.81 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.81)
  2. Multivariable model 1 included the income level in 2020 as a categorical variable using quartile ratios; model 2 included the income level in 2020 as a continuous variable (per 5% decrease); model 3 included the average income level for 6 years (2015–2020) for sensitivity analysis. In addition, the grade of disability, and CCI were included in multivariable model 1, whereas the type of disability and specific underlying diseases, which were used to calculate the CCI, were included in multivariable model 2
  3. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, DM diabetes mellitus, AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, AUC area under curve