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Table 1 Characteristics of the study subjects (N = 283)

From: Subjective sleep quality and association with depression syndrome, chronic diseases and health-related physical fitness in the middle-aged and elderly

   Quality of sleep p value
Variable n (%) Good n (%) Poor n (%)
Age (years) (59 ± 7.3)     0.020#
  < 65 227 (80.2) 161 (70.9) 66 (29.1)  
 65 ~ 74 45 (15.9) 38 (54.4) 7 (15.6)  
  ≥ 75 11 (3.9) 5 (45.5) 6 (54.5)  
Sex     0.317
 Male 60 (21.2) 47 (78.3) 13 (21.7)  
 Female 223 (78.8) 157 (71.2) 66 (22.6)  
Religious beliefs     0.513
 No 61 (21.6) 46 (75.4) 15 (24.6)  
  sYes 222 (78.4) 158 (71.2) 64 (28.8)  
Smoking history     0.284
 No 268 (94.7) 195 (72.8) 73 (27.2)  
 Yes 15 (5.3) 9 (60.0) 6 (40.0)  
Alcohol consumption     0.048
 No 232 (82.0) 162 (69.8) 70 (30.2)  
 At least once a week 51 (18.0) 42 (82.4) 9 (17.6)  
Tea consumption     0.407
 No 116 (41.0) 85 (73.3) 31 (26.7)  
 At least once a week 167 (59.0) 119 (72.3) 48 (28.7)  
Coffee consumption     0.521
 No 110 (38.9) 79 (71.8) 31 (28.2)  
 At least once a week 173 (61.1) 125 (72.3) 48 (27.7)  
Regular exercise     0.526
 No 143 (50.5) 101 (70.6) 42 (29.4)  
 Yes 140 (49.5) 103 (73.6) 37 (26.4)  
Chronic disease a     0.025
 No 121 (42.8) 95 (78.5) 26 (21.5)  
 Yes 162 (57.2) 109 (67.3) 53 (32.7)  
Heart disease     0.017
 No 250 (88.3) 186 (74.4) 64 (25.6)  
 Yes 33 (11.7) 18 (54.5) 15 (45.5)  
Arthritis     0.002
 No 258 (91.2) 193 (74.8) 65 (25.2)  
 Yes 25 (8.8) 11 (44.0) 14 (56.0)  
Physical activity b (Mets)     0.949#
 Low 15 (5.7) 11 (73.3) 4 (26.7)  
 Moderate 135 (51.1) 95 (70.4) 40 (29.6)  
 High 114 (43.2) 83 (72.8) 31 (27.2)  
Depressive symptoms c     0.004
 No 264 (94.0) 195 (73.9) 69 (26.1)  
 Yes 17 (6.0) 7 (41.2) 10 (58.8)  
  1. a Chronic diseases included heart disease, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lung disease, peptic ulcers, liver disease, osteoporosis, gout, and cataracts. Heart disease and arthritis were significant, while the others were not. b mean ± standard deviation: 4129.72 ± 4811.94; c CES-D score:2.74 ± 4.02. # Fisher’s exact test. Mets, metabolic equivalents